quiz 3 Microbiology Phenotype Classification Quiz

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49 Questions

What is the generic term for the study of microorganisms?

Microbiology

Which of the following is NOT included in the study of microbiology?

Plant cells

In which of the following areas does microbiology play an important role?

Pharmaceuticals and biotechnology

Which of the following is NOT a field impacted by microbiology?

Astronomy

Which of the following microorganisms is NOT included in the study of microbiology?

Grasshopper

Which of the following is a relevant area where microbiology plays an important role?

Fermented foods

Which of the following is not a type of microorganism?

Fungi

What is the process of arranging organisms into groups based on shared characteristics called?

Microbial classification

Which type of entity cannot reproduce on its own?

Viruses

What refers to the deterioration of a product by a contaminating microbe?

Microbial spoilage

Which field involves extracting genetic components and cell components of microbes?

Molecular microbiology

What type of media can be used to grow microbes in the lab?

Solid and liquid media

Which of the following is a genetic variant or subtype of a species?

Staphylococcus aureus

Who are the key figures involved in microbial classification?

.Linnaeus, Haeckel, and Whittaker

What is the study of microorganisms (microbes) called?

Microbiology

What can be genetically modified to produce therapeutic proteins?

Bacteria

What is a collection of strains that share stable properties?

Bacterial species

Which bacterial external cell component can also be known as Fimbriae?

Pilli

What is the main component of bacterial genetic material?

Nucleoid

Which bacterial internal cell component can replicate autonomously within the host?

Plasmids

What bacterial structure acts as a survival mechanism increasing resistance to adverse conditions such as lack of nutrients?

Endospores

What are the sites of protein synthesis in bacterial cells?

Ribosomes

Which viral structure is optional and may or may not be present?

Lipid envelope

Which bacterial internal cell component contains a single chromosome of double stranded DNA?

Nucleoid

Which type of pili allows transfer of DNA between 2 bacteria?

Conjugative pili

What can help in attachment to surfaces and provide protection from adverse conditions in bacteria?

Capsules

Which bacterial cell structure forms long filaments and remains attached following cell division?

Trichomes

Which viral structure is present in some viruses, allowing them to infect prokaryotes?

Receptors

What are the main components of bacterial cell that can be viewed using phase contrast microscopy or stained?

Endospores

What is the primary method used to identify bacteria based on how they retain crystal violet dye?

Cell structure

What does the term 'serotype' refer to in microbial classification?

Distinct variations in cell surface antigens within a species

What is the primary characteristic determined by genotype in microbial classification?

Part of the genetic makeup of a cell

Which method is used to produce clusters (clades) of similar organisms based on DNA or protein sequences?

Phylogenetics

What characteristic of bacteria is determined by its susceptibility to bacteriophages and its ability to cause disease?

Pathogenicity

How are laboratory facilities categorized in terms of microbial safety?

Categorized based on Biosafety level (BSL)

Which gene in Staphylococcus aureus causes methicillin resistance?

mecA gene

What type of gene mutations include point mutations (SNPs) and gene insertions/deletions?

Gene mutations

What method can be used to identify more closely related organisms based on genetic sequences?

Multiple sequence alignments (MSA)

What aspect does the Advisory committee on Dangerous Pathogens (ACDP) categorize microorganisms by?

Severity of disease

What genetic feature causes methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus?

mecA gene

What category of microorganisms does gram staining identify based on how they retain crystal violet dye?

Bacilli or cocci

What is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, providing shape and protection against osmotic lysis?

Peptidoglycan

Which structure is involved in bacterial motility and can be monotrichous, lophotrichous, amphitrichous, or peritrichous?

Flagella

What is a protective structure that allows some bacteria to survive harsh environmental conditions?

Endospore

Which of the following is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can stimulate a pro-inflammatory immune response?

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

What provides resistance to antibiotics in bacteria?

Plasmid

Which microbial classification is based on the genetic makeup of microbes and used for more precise identification and classification?

Genotype

What refers to the observable characteristics of microbes, such as morphology, colony appearance, and biochemical reactions?

Phenotype

Which level of containment is required for handling pathogens such as Ebola and Variola viruses?

BSL-4

Study Notes

  • Bacteria and viruses: two main groups of microorganisms
  • Bacteria come in various shapes and sizes, including cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod-shaped), and spiral bacteria
  • Morphology is not an accurate form of classification, but can provide a general understanding of bacterial structure
  • Bacteria have a simpler structure than eukaryotic cells, and can adapt more readily to environmental changes
  • Bacterial cells consist of several components, including structural components such as the cell wall and plasma membrane, genetic material, ribosomes, and various specialized structures
  • Cell wall: a major component of bacterial cells, made of peptidoglycan, which provides shape and protection against osmotic lysis
  • Plasma membrane: a selectively permeable membrane that maintains the internal environment, retains cytoplasm, and protects against external agents
  • Flagella: structures involved in bacterial motility, which can be monotrichous, lophotrichous, amphitrichous, or peritrichous, and are essential for the virulence of certain bacteria like V. cholerae
  • Viruses are much smaller than bacteria, and consist of a protein coat (capsid) and genetic material, either DNA or RNA
  • Biosafety levels: different levels of containment required for handling various microorganisms, including BSL-1, BSL-2, and BSL-4 facilities for handling pathogens such as Ebola and Variola viruses.
  • Bacterial cell structure:
    • Morphology: varies greatly among bacterial species, with different shapes, sizes, and colors
    • Colonies: can be used to identify bacterial species
    • Internal structures: include ribosomes, nucleoid, and various specialized structures
    • External structures: include cell wall, plasma membrane, and flagella
  • Internal structures:
    • Nucleoid: contains bacterial DNA
    • Ribosomes: sites of protein synthesis
    • Plasmid: extrachromosomal DNA that provides resistance to antibiotics
    • Endospores: protective structures that allow some bacteria to survive harsh environmental conditions
    • Capsules and slime: protective layers that help shield bacteria from the environment
    • Flagella: structures involved in bacterial motility, powered by a proton gradient
    • Pili: structures involved in bacterial attachment and transfer of genetic material between bacteria
  • External structures:
    • Cell wall: provides structural support and protects against osmotic lysis
    • Plasma membrane: maintains the internal environment and selectively allows the passage of certain molecules
    • Flagella: structures involved in bacterial motility
    • Peptidoglycan: a major component of the bacterial cell wall, made of alternating residues of Nacetylglucosamine (NAG) and Nacetylmuramic acid (NAM)
    • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, can stimulate a pro-inflammatory immune response.
  • Viral morphology:
    • Viruses are much smaller than bacteria, and consist of a protein coat (capsid) and genetic material, either DNA or RNA
    • Shapes: vary among viral species, including icosahedral, helical, and complex structures
    • Mode of entry: can enter cells through various mechanisms, including endocytosis, phagocytosis, and direct penetration.
  • Microbial classification:
    • Phenotype: observable characteristics of microbes, such as morphology, colony appearance, and biochemical reactions
    • Serotype: based on the presence and structure of antigenic surfaces, used to distinguish between different strains of the same species
    • Genotype: based on the genetic makeup of microbes, used for more precise identification and classification.
  • Biosafety level: refers to the level of containment required for handling and studying various microorganisms, based on their potential to cause harm to human health and the environment.
  • Bacterial classification:
    • Morphology: used to describe the general structure of bacteria, including size, shape, and color
    • Cell structure: includes both internal and external structures
    • Cocci: spherical bacteria, including monococci, diplococci, and tetrads
    • Bacilli: rod-shaped bacteria, including monobacilli, diplobacilli, and streptobacilli
    • Spiral bacteria: include spirilla and spirochetes
    • Gram positive: have a single plasma membrane, and a thick peptidoglycan layer
    • Gram negative: have a double plasma membrane, and a thin peptidoglycan layer, with a outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Test your knowledge on microbiology phenotype classification, covering topics such as morphology, serotype, genotype, and ecological properties. Questions may include identifying cell shapes, structures, biochemistry, and life cycle characteristics.

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