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Microbiology and Respiratory Disorders Assessment

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84 Questions

Which type of chest pain is typically caused by inflammation of the lining surrounding the heart?

Pericardial pain

What is the primary focus of the Inspection phase of physical assessment?

Visual examination of the patient

What is the term for the abnormal curvature of the spine, resulting in a 'humpback' appearance?

Kyphosis

Which of the following is a characteristic of central cyanosis?

Diffuse blue discoloration

What is the term for the widening of the fingertips, often associated with respiratory or cardiac disease?

Digital clubbing

What is the term for the abnormal curvature of the spine, resulting in a 'S-shaped' appearance?

Scoliosis

What is the primary purpose of the open-ended questions in a patient interview?

To encourage the patient to share more information about their condition

What is the significance of patient behavior during the interview?

It can provide cues about the patient's symptoms and concerns

What is the purpose of the Review of Systems (ROS) in a patient assessment?

To investigate the patient's symptoms and concerns

What is the unit of measurement used to calculate a patient's smoking history?

Pack Years

What is the primary role of the clinical microbiological laboratory in microbiological surveillance?

To identify and track antibiotic-resistant bacteria

What are the three 'spaces' in the context of patient assessment?

Personal space, physical space, and emotional space

What is the term for the normal breathing pattern?

Eupnea

What is the primary characteristic of a tracheal breath sound?

Louder and harsher than other breath sounds

Which of the following breathing patterns is characterized by a sudden onset of dyspnea that occurs at night, often waking the patient from sleep?

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

What is the term for the abnormal breath sound pattern characterized by high-pitched whistling sounds?

Wheeze

Which of the following breath sounds is typically heard over the main stem bronchi?

Bronchial breath sound

What is the purpose of identifying internal thoracic structures using imaginary lines on the surface of the chest?

To locate specific landmarks for physical examination

Which of the following is a type of vocal fremitus?

Egophony

What is the term for the assessment technique that involves tapping on the chest wall to produce sounds that can be used to assess the lungs?

Percussion

What is the term for the breathing pattern characterized by a gradual increase in rate and depth, followed by a gradual decrease in rate and depth?

Cheyne-Stokes breathing

What is the primary purpose of identifying the anterior and posterior thoracic bony landmarks?

To locate specific landmarks for physical examination

What is the term for the device used to measure blood pressure?

Sphygmomanometer

What is the term for the fine, high-pitched crackling sounds heard during inspiration?

Inspiratory crackles

What is the location of the point of maximal impulse (PMI) in normal individuals?

5th intercostal space, midclavicular line

What is the clinical significance of a displaced point of maximal impulse (PMI)?

It is a sign of cardiac enlargement or hypertrophy

What is the primary characteristic of abdominal ascites?

Fluid accumulation in the peritoneal space

What is the clinical significance of digital clubbing?

It is a sign of chronic respiratory disease

What is the purpose of the capillary refill test?

To assess peripheral circulation

How will increasing the compliance of a lung unit affect gas movement into and out of the alveolus?

The alveolus will fill and empty more quickly

Which characteristic helps distinguish hematemesis from hemoptysis?

The sputum is uniformly dark red

Which of the following tissues forms major components of the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems?

Epithelial tissue

What is the characteristic of the skin?

It is a membrane made of epithelial tissue

Which of the following would decrease the affinity of Hb for oxygen?

Increased temperature

A fibrotic lung would most likely exhibit which of the following characteristics?

Decreased lung compliance

Which of the following statements is true about epithelial tissue?

It forms major components of the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems

Why is it necessary to subtract alveolar water vapor pressure from barometric pressure when calculating PAO2?

Because O2 will dissolve in water and lower the PAO2

Which of the following is correct about epithelial tissue membranes?

They consist of an epithelial layer on top of a connective tissue layer

Compared to air, the density of an 80% He and 20% O2 mixture is approximately:

One-half as much

In a normal adult at rest, the average time for blood passing through the pulmonary capillary to equilibrate with oxygen is:

0.35 second

When monitoring the earliest physiologic response to breathing 100% O₂, which of the following is typically observed first?

Decreased vital capacity (VC)

A patient has a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 7. What should the RCP prepare to do?

Prepare to perform emergency airway management

Carbon dioxide is transported by the blood in which of the following forms?

All of the above

A patient experiences difficult breathing while lying in the supine position. What term should the RCP use to record this finding?

Orthopnea

What should the RCP suspect in a patient with a GCS score of 7?

The patient is likely to require airway management

What is the most likely response to breathing 100% O₂?

Decreased diffusing capacity (DLCO)

A patient receiving oxygen therapy through a nasal cannula has a measured SpO2 of 93% and no clinical signs of hypoxemia. What should you recommend?

Maintaining the therapy as is and rechecking the SpO2 on the next shift

Which of the following would indicate adequate oxygenation for adult patients with chronic lung disease during an acute-on-chronic hypoxemia?

SaO2 of 90% or higher and PaO2 of 50 mm Hg to 60 mm Hg

What is the most common cause of hemoptysis in adults?

Bronchogenic carcinoma and pneumonia

A patient with chronic lung disease is experiencing acute-on-chronic hypoxemia. What should be the target range for their SaO2?

90% or higher

What should be done if a patient receiving oxygen therapy through a nasal cannula has a measured SpO2 of 90% and signs of hypoxemia?

Increase the flow to 4 L/min and recheck the SpO2

What is the primary source of respiratory tract secretions in the smaller airways of normal lungs?

The bronchial glands

Which of the following assessment findings indicate a need for O2 therapy?

I, II, and IV only

What do retractions indicate?

An increase in the work of breathing

What is the significance of more ventilation going to the Jang core than to the periphery?

It is a normal phenomenon in the lung

What is the significance of more ventilation going to the apexes of the lung?

It is a normal phenomenon in the lung

A normal person breathing 100% oxygen at sea level should have a PAO2 of about what level?

760 mm Hg

Which of the following mechanisms maintains the patency of smallest conducting airways?

I, II, III, and IV

What is the maximum FIO2 expected to be delivered by most air-entrainment masks?

60%

What is the water vapor pressure exerted by a gas that is saturated at 37°C?

43.8 mm Hg

The oxidation of the Hb molecule's iron ions to the ferric state results in which of the following?

Formation of methemoglobin and decreased uptake of oxygen

Regional factors affecting the distribution of gas in the normal lung result in which of the following?

More ventilation goes to the bases and lung periphery

What is the minimum flow rate recommended to wash out exhaled CO₂ when using a cannula?

5 L/min

What characteristic of the diaphragm makes it resistant to fatigue?

More than half of its muscle fibers are slow oxidative

Which artery is most often used to assess arterial blood pressure?

Brachial

What is indicated by an abdominal paradox breathing pattern?

Diaphragmatic fatigue

What is the purpose of changing the mask to a cannula at 2 L/min?

To increase oxygenation

What is the most likely cause of elevated arterial carbon dioxide (PCO)?

A breathing pattern with small tidal volumes

During normal inspiration, what happens to the transpulmonary pressure gradient?

It widens

What is the effect of decreased compliance of the lungs or thorax on the work of breathing?

It increases the elastic component

How many milliliters of oxygen can combine with 1 g of Hb under normal physiological circumstances?

1.340 ml

What is the correct action to take when a physician orders 2 L/min O2 via a simple mask for a patient with moderate hypoxemia breathing room air?

Carry out the physician's prescription as written

What would increase the elastic component of the work of breathing?

Decreased compliance of the lungs or thorax and high respiratory rates

What is the most common cause of hypoxemia in patients with lung disease?

VQ mismatch

In the normal lung, what percentage of the inward (collapsing) force is exerted by surface tension?

About 2/3

What is the approximate PaO2 if the SaO2 is 70%?

40 mmHg

What is a correct statement about peripheral cyanosis?

It is a sign of inadequate tissue perfusion

What is the purpose of a high-flow nasal cannula?

To provide high humidity and high FIO2

When a COPD patient increases ventilation, what happens to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production?

Oxygen consumption rises faster than carbon dioxide production

What can be concluded about the patient's condition based on the patient's breath sounds and blood pressure?

Pulsus paradoxus is present

How would the RCP document the patient's smoking history?

30 pack-years

What is the significance of the patient's blood pressure reading?

The patient's pulse pressure is greater than 30 mmHg

What is the most likely cause of the patient's diminished to absent breath sounds?

Severe asthma attack

What is the relationship between the patient's pulse pressure and their blood pressure?

Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure

Test your knowledge on microbiological surveillance, clinical laboratory procedures, and bedside assessment of respiratory disorders. Also, learn about drug resistance and patient privacy and confidentiality. This quiz covers essential concepts in microbiology and respiratory health.

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