Microbial Biofilms and Human Microbiome

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What are the factors affecting biofilm formation?

Bacterial adhesion, EPS, quorum sensing, physio-chemical properties of surface, conditioning films, hydrodynamics, characteristic of aqueous medium

What are the environmental impacts of biofilms?

Biofilm can cause fouling and corrosion of wet surfaces, clogging of filtration membranes, and act as reservoirs of pathogens in distribution systems for drinking water.

What are the methods to recover bacteria from medical devices for identification?

Roll plate, vortex viable count, sonicate, endoluminal brush, acridine orange direct staining

What are the treatment and clinical diagnosis issues related to biofilms?

Drug resistance, culture negativity in repeated blood samples

What is the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and when was it initiated?

The HMP is a large-scale project initiated in 2007 for the characterization of the comprehensive human microbiome and metagenome.

What percentage of hospital and community-acquired infections are accountable for by biofilms?

over 80%

Where do biofilms form on living tissues?

respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, oral cavities, eyes, ears, wounds, heart and cervix

What do biopolymers mainly consist of in the biofilm matrix?

polysaccharides, extracellular DNA, RNA, proteins/enzymes, lipids

What are the roles of the biofilm matrix?

Protects bacterial cells from physical (shear stress) and chemical (antibiotics, detergents) challenges, determines biofilm architecture, serves as a nutrient source

What determines the biofilm architecture?

nutrient source

What is the role of quorum sensing in biofilm formation?

Quorum sensing is essential for biofilm formation as it involves cell-cell communication relying on secreted signal molecules, called auto inducers or pheromones.

What are the physiochemical properties of surfaces that microbes prefer for attachment in biofilm formation?

Microbes attach to Teflon and plastic more than glass and metal.

What are the limitations of the VSVM method in detecting microbial biofilms?

The limitations of the VSVM method include: (i) not all adherent microorganisms in biofilm might be detached; (ii) the sonication treatment could affect microbial viability leading to erroneous counts; (iii) the CFU counts are referred to the number of planktonic detached microorganisms rather than the total number of adherent microorganisms.

What are the treatment issues related to biofilms, particularly in terms of drug resistance?

Treatment issues related to biofilms include drug resistance due to reduced penetration, reduced growth rate, and altered microenvironment.

What is the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and what is its primary objective?

The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a large-scale project initiated in 2007 for the characterization of the comprehensive human microbiome, including the microbiota and the human microbial genes that contribute to the broader genetic portrait of a human.

Test your knowledge on microbial biofilms and the human microbiome with this quiz. Learn about the role of bacterial self-released molecules in biofilm formation and the clinical significance of biofilms in causing various infections.

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