Micelles Solubilization Theory

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What is the primary difference between O/W and W/O emulsions?

The amount of water present

Which step is NOT involved in the process of detergency with surfactants?

Evaporation of the dirt particles

How do surfactants contribute to antibacterial activity?

By adsorbing on the cell surface and increasing membrane permeability

What is the role of surfactants in increasing the activity of other antibacterial compounds?

Enhancing their penetration through the cell membrane

In what conditions does adsorption take place at solid interfaces?

From either an adjacent liquid or gas phase

What characterizes the process of adsorption on solid surfaces for porous materials?

Occurrence at the surface of a solid material

Where are non-polar solubilizates dissolved in a micelle?

In the micelle core

Which type of drugs are better absorbed when solubilized in surfactants?

Water-insoluble drugs

What is the main function of micelles in solubilization?

Enhancing solubility of molecules

In which part of the micelle are slightly soluble solubilizates without a distinct amphiphilic structure located?

Between the surface and core

What is the oldest application of solubilization mentioned in the text?

Cresol solubilization for disinfection

Where are water insoluble compounds with polar groups oriented in a micelle?

Polar groups at the surface, hydrophobic groups inside the core

What is the main function of foaming agents?

To stabilize air globules in a water film

Which role do antifoaming agents play in pharmaceutical liquid preparations?

Reduce foam formation

What does a wetting agent do when dissolved in water?

Lowers the contact angle between a liquid and a solid

Which type of agent aids in displacing an air phase with a liquid phase?

Wetting agent

What is the importance of antifoaming agents in pharmaceutical preparations?

To reduce foam formation during manufacturing

How does a wetting agent affect the contact angle between a liquid and a solid?

Lower it

Which type of adsorption involves the formation of chemical bonds between the adsorbate and the adsorbent?

Chemical adsorption

What happens during desorption in physical adsorption?

Gas can be desorbed by increasing temperature or reducing pressure

How does the rate of adsorption change with increasing adsorbate pressure in chemical adsorption?

The rate of adsorption decreases

Which factor affects the completeness of the process of adsorption from solvents?

Dilution level

When does the adsorption capacity of an adsorbent vary for the same compound (adsorbate)?

Based on the surface area of the adsorbent

What determines the degree of gas adsorption by a solid?

Chemical nature of both the adsorbent and the adsorbate

What is the primary factor that affects the adsorption process in terms of the surface area of the adsorbent?

Particle size and porosity

Which application involves the use of alumina and silica gel to remove traces of moisture from organic solvents or compounds?

Desiccants and drying agents

In which application does the removal of ions from solutions rely on the affinity of certain adsorbents to specific ions?

Ion exchangers

What is the purpose of using charcoal as an antidote in oral intoxication?

To adsorb and remove toxins like atropine and strychnine

What technique relies on the difference in affinity of an adsorbent for various solutes for separation?

Adsorption chromatography

Why are volatile oils fixed on the surface of a solid with a large surface area?

To enhance the smell of the product

Learn about the process of solubilization where water insoluble or partially soluble molecules are brought into aqueous solution by incorporating into micelles. Explore examples of drugs that are solubilized in micelles like vitamins, hormonal steroids, alkaloid drugs, and glycosides.

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