Medical Imaging Techniques Quiz
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Medical Imaging Techniques Quiz

Test your knowledge on various medical imaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and computed tomography (CT) scan. Learn about how each technique works and its applications in the medical field.

Created by
@ColorfulGlacier

Questions and Answers

Which type of neurone transmits impulses from the CNS to effectors?

Motor neurone

What is the function of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system?

Form the myelin sheath around nerve cells

Which part of the eye can contract and dilate using the iris to control the amount of light entering the retina?

Pupil

What is the main function of a receptor in the nervous system?

<p>Detect changes in the environment and convert them to impulses</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of neurone exists in the CNS and connects sensory neurones with motor neurones?

<p>Relay neurone</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is myelination?

<p>Formation of a myelin sheath around nerve cells by Schwann cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main purpose of saltatory conduction in nerve cells?

<p>To allow rapid propagation of an action potential</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of nodes of Ranvier in nerve conduction?

<p>They allow for the propagation of action potentials due to their many ion channels</p> Signup and view all the answers

What causes depolarization in a nerve cell?

<p>Rapid influx of sodium ions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens during hyperpolarization in a nerve cell?

<p>The membrane potential drops below the resting potential</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is commonly used in the parasympathetic nervous system?

<p>Acetylcholine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What principle states that any generator potential reaching or exceeding a threshold will produce an action potential?

<p>All-or-nothing principle</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of motor neurones?

<p>Transmit impulses from the CNS to effectors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is hyperpolarization?

<p>Drop in membrane potential below resting potential after repolarization</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of Schwann cells?

<p>Form myelin sheath around nerve cells in the peripheral nervous system</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are Nodes of Ranvier known for in nerve cells?

<p>Allowing rapid propagation of action potentials due to many ion channels</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is Saltatory conduction?

<p>Setting up localised circuits between nodes of Ranvier</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of Sensory neurones?

<p>Transmit impulses from receptors to relay neurones in the CNS</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in plants?

<p>Promoting cell growth and elongation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following structures in the eye controls the diameter of the pupil?

<p>Iris</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of phytochrome in plants?

<p>Detecting changes in external light conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which protein in the eye is responsible for converting dim light into an electrochemical impulse?

<p>Retinal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of rods in the retina?

<p>Specializing in working under dim light conditions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What medical imaging technique assesses brain function through the visualisation of blood flow in brain capillaries?

<p>Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which system is acetylcholine used as a neurotransmitter?

<p>Parasympathetic nervous system</p> Signup and view all the answers

During which critical period is exposure to various visual stimuli vital for the full development of neuronal connections?

<p>Infancy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is associated with the brain's reward system?

<p>Dopamine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurodegenerative disease affects dopamine-secreting neurons and causes a decrease in motor functions?

<p>Parkinson's disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

What effect is observed when animals gradually stop responding to a stimulus after repeated exposure?

<p>Habituation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which neurotransmitter is involved in signaling pathways related to happiness and mood regulation?

<p>Serotonin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Neural Structure and Function

  • A sensory neurone transmits impulses from receptors to relay neurones in the CNS.
  • A relay neurone exists in the CNS and connects sensory neurones with motor neurones.
  • A motor neurone transmits impulses from the CNS to effectors.
  • Dendrons are extensions from a nerve cell that carry impulses towards the cell body.
  • Axons are extensions from a nerve cell that carry impulses away from the cell body.
  • Schwann cells form the myelin sheath around nerve cells in the peripheral nervous system.
  • Myelination is the formation of a myelin sheath around nerve cells by Schwann cells.

Neural Signaling

  • A stimulus is a change in internal or external conditions which brings about a response.
  • A receptor is a structure that acts as a transducer by detecting changes in the environment and converting them into electrochemical impulses.
  • An effector is a muscle or gland that produces a response to a stimulus.
  • Saltatory conduction is the setting up of localised circuits between nodes of Ranvier which allows for the rapid propagation of an action potential.
  • Nodes of Ranvier are unmyelinated sections of nerve cells which allow for the propagation of an action potential due to their many ion channels.

Synaptic Transmission

  • A synapse is the junction between two nerve cells or a nerve cell and an effector.
  • A neurotransmitter is a chemical that diffuses across the synaptic gap to stimulate other neurones or effector cells.
  • Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter used in the parasympathetic nervous system.
  • Depolarisation is the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cell which causes it to lose its negative charge and the membrane potential to increase.
  • Hyperpolarization is the drop in membrane potential below the resting potential after repolarization due to open potassium ion channels.

Vision

  • The pupil is the hole in the centre of the iris which can contract and dilate using the iris to alter the amount of light which contacts the retina.
  • The iris is the pigmented muscular ring that surrounds the pupil and controls its diameter.
  • The retina is the structure at the back of the eye which is composed of photoreceptors and is specialised to detect light.
  • Rhodopsin is a protein found in rod cells that converts dim light into an electrochemical impulse.
  • Rods are a type of photoreceptor found in the retina which is specialised to work in dim light.

Brain Imaging and Function

  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a medical imaging technique that uses radio waves and a magnetic field to assess brain function through the visualisation of blood flow in brain capillaries.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) is a medical imaging technique used to assess organ and tissue metabolic function through the use of radioactive molecules and computer analysis.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan is a type of medical imaging technique that uses several x-rays and computer software to create detailed images of structures and organs inside the body.

Neurological Disorders

  • Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease which affects the dopamine secreting neurones and leads to a decrease in motor functions and tremors in resting muscles.
  • Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in signalling pathways associated with the brain’s reward system.
  • Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in signalling pathways associated with happiness and mood regulation.

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