Barrier Immunity

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45 Questions

What are the immediate release cytokines from mast cells?

IL-4 and TNF-α

Which type of inflammation is associated with the release of IL-4, TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-18 from mast cells?

Type II inflammation

What are the mast cell factors that stimulate tissue remodeling?

IL-4 and TGF-β

What is responsible for many signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis?

Mast cell degranulation resulting in an acute response

What happens if mast cell activation occurs repeatedly?

'Pro-fibrotic' growth factors stimulate tissue remodeling

Which molecule serves as a 'specific' receptor for antigen on mast cell membranes?

IgE

When antigen binds to IgE attached to the mast cell membrane, what process occurs?

Degranulation

Apart from IgE, what other receptors can trigger degranulation in mast cells?

TLRs, NLRs, and C-type lectins

Which of the following is NOT a function of histamine released by mast cells?

Platelet activation

What is the function of heparin released by mast cells?

Coagulation

Which of the following is an example of a chemotactic factor produced by mast cells?

Eotaxin

What is the function of leukotrienes released by mast cells?

Smooth muscle constriction

Which type of T-helper response is commonly associated with atopic dermatitis?

Th2

Where are key mediators like histamine and leukotrienes typically located in mast cells and eosinophils?

Granules

What is the primary function of IgE and its Fc receptor in relation to mast cells and eosinophils?

Trigger degranulation of mast cells and eosinophils

Which type of inflammation is characterized by the activation of eosinophils and the production of cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5?

Type 2 inflammation

What is the impact of defects in the barrier function of the skin on the development of atopic dermatitis?

It leads to a Th2 response

During a viral upper respiratory infection, which type of inflammatory response is predominantly activated?

"Type 1" inflammatory response

How do innate lymphoid cells impact the overall immune response at barrier tissues?

By releasing pro-inflammatory mediators

What is the main polarizing cytokine that transforms a naive Th cell into a Th2 cell?

IL-4

Which type of T-helper cells secrete IFN-y to stimulate class switching to IgG subtypes?

Th1 cells

Which protein is important in tight junction formation and interacts with the cytoskeleton?

ZO-proteins

Which cells seem to leave the bone marrow as relatively undifferentiated cells and then mature in the peripheral tissues that they migrate into?

Mast cells

Which cytokines stimulate class switching to IgA?

TGF-beta and Retinoic Acid

Which cytokines are secreted by Th2 cells to stimulate class switching to IgE?

IL-4 and IL-5

What is the main determining transcription factor for Th2 cells?

GATA-3

What is the net result of the skin maturing from deeper layers with respect to junctions?

Loss of hemidesmosomes and modification of tight junctions

What signals seem to promote survival and migration of mast cells?

High circulating IgE and IL-4

Which signal inhibits the survival of mast cells?

IFN-gamma

Which of the following is true?

Proteases may have an anti-inflammatory effect when released in granules

Which of the following is true regarding mast cells and the cytokines they release?

All of the above

Mast cells play an important role in Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions

True

Mast cells are always pro-inflammatory

False

Which of the following cytokines is the major driver of eosinophils proliferation and activation?

IL-5

Eosinophils granule contents do NOT include.....

IL-5

Which of the following promotes migration of eosinophils into peripheral tissue?

Eotaxin

Mast cells are long lived cells, unlike eosinophils which are short lived cells

True

Which of the following activate ILC-1 cells?

IL-12

Which of the following activate ILC-2 cells?

Alarmins

Both ILC-1 and ILC-2 need IL-2 to get activated

True

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells and are usually found in the dermis

False

Which of the following cells are found in the dermis?

All of the above

Which of the following microbes can activate ILC2 cells?

None of the above

Macrophages are not able to detect allergens and worms

True

Which of the following cytokines are produced by ILC-2 cells in the presence of alarmins?

All of the above

Test your knowledge about the function and activation of mast cells in the immune system. This quiz covers topics such as Fc receptor for IgE, degranulation, and the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on mast cells.

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