Linguistics: Pragmatics

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What is the primary focus of pragmatics in linguistics?

The meaning of language in context

What is the term for an inference drawn from the literal meaning of an utterance?

Implicature

What is the term for the act of saying something, including the literal meaning of the words?

Locutionary act

What is the purpose of the maxims of conversation?

To ensure effective communication

What is the term for words that require context to determine their meaning?

Deixis

Why is pragmatics essential in language acquisition?

Because it enables learners to understand the nuances of language in context

What is the term for an assumption or piece of knowledge that is taken for granted in a conversation?

Presupposition

What is the effect of the utterance on the listener, according to pragmatics?

Perlocutionary act

Study Notes

Definition and Scope

  • Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics that studies how language is used in context to convey meaning.
  • It examines how speakers and listeners use language to achieve their goals, taking into account the social, cultural, and physical context of communication.

Key Concepts

  • Implicature: an inference drawn from the literal meaning of an utterance, based on the context and the speaker's intention.
  • Presupposition: a assumption or piece of knowledge that is taken for granted in a conversation.
  • Inference: a conclusion drawn from the literal meaning of an utterance, using context and common sense.

Speech Acts

  • Locutionary act: the act of saying something, including the literal meaning of the words.
  • Illocutionary act: the act performed by saying something, such as making a request or giving an order.
  • Perlocutionary act: the effect of the utterance on the listener, such as persuasion or intimidation.

Cooperative Principle

  • Maxims of conversation:
    • Quality: be truthful and informative.
    • Quantity: be as informative as required.
    • Relation: be relevant.
    • Manner: be polite and respectful.

Contextualization

  • Deixis: words that require context to determine their meaning, such as "here" and "now".
  • Indexicals: words that rely on the context to determine their reference, such as "I" and "you".

Implications

  • Pragmatics is essential for effective communication, as it helps to avoid misunderstandings and ensure that the intended meaning is conveyed.
  • It is also crucial in language acquisition, as it enables learners to understand the nuances of language in context.

Definition and Scope

  • Pragmatics studies how language is used in context to convey meaning, examining how speakers and listeners use language to achieve their goals, considering social, cultural, and physical context of communication.

Key Concepts

  • Implicature: inference drawn from literal meaning of an utterance, based on context and speaker's intention.
  • Presupposition: assumption or piece of knowledge taken for granted in a conversation.
  • Inference: conclusion drawn from literal meaning of an utterance, using context and common sense.

Speech Acts

  • Locutionary act: act of saying something, including literal meaning of the words.
  • Illocutionary act: act performed by saying something, such as making a request or giving an order.
  • Perlocutionary act: effect of the utterance on the listener, such as persuasion or intimidation.

Cooperative Principle

  • Maxims of conversation: • Quality: be truthful and informative. • Quantity: be as informative as required. • Relation: be relevant. • Manner: be polite and respectful.

Contextualization

  • Deixis: words requiring context to determine their meaning, such as "here" and "now".
  • Indexicals: words relying on context to determine their reference, such as "I" and "you".

Implications

  • Pragmatics is essential for effective communication, helping to avoid misunderstandings and ensuring intended meaning is conveyed.
  • Pragmatics is crucial in language acquisition, enabling learners to understand nuances of language in context.

Explore the study of language in context, including implicature, presupposition, and speaker intention. Learn how language is used to achieve goals in social, cultural, and physical contexts.

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