Latin American Revolutions of the 18th and 19th Centuries

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Who led the Haitian Revolution and abolished slavery on the entire island?

Toussaint Louverture

Which revolutionary leader is known as the 'Liberator of South America'?

Simon Bolivar

Where did Jose de San Martin lead a hard march across during the fight for Latin American independence?


Which revolutionary figure from Mexico started the Mexican Revolution in 1810?

Miguel Hidalgo

In which year did Haiti declare its independence under Jean-Jacques Dessalines?


What was the fate of Toussaint Louverture after Haiti's independence?

He died in French prison.

Study Notes

  • The text discusses the Latin American Revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries, led by five notable figures: Toussaint Louvre (Haiti), Simon Bolivar (South America), Jose de San Martin (Argentina), Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico), and Don Pedro I (Brazil).
  • Toussaint Louvre, a former slave and unlikely hero, led the Haitian Revolution in the late 1700s, gaining control of the entire island and abolishing slavery.
  • Despite gaining independence, Toussaint was captured and died in French prison in 1803. The Haitian Revolution continued under Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's independence on January 1, 1804.
  • Simon Bolivar, the "Liberator of South America," aimed to unite Spanish colonies in South America into a country called Grand Colombia. His journey was challenging, but he led a successful march through the Andes and gained victories, making Venezuela free by 1821.
  • Jose de San Martin, a simple man from Argentina, joined the fight for Latin American independence after spending time in Spain. He led a hard march across the Andes into Chile and liberated it in 1817. Later, he met Bolivar and combined their forces, winning the Battle of Ayacucho in 1824, making Latin America free.
  • Miguel Hidalgo, a priest in Mexico, began the Mexican Revolution in 1810 with a call for rebellion against the Spanish. His followers grew to about 80,000 people, but the Spanish Army defeated him in 1811. Other leaders continued the fight for four more years, with Augustin de Iturbide, a wealthy creole officer, declaring Mexico free in 1821.
  • Don Pedro I, the future king of Brazil, remained in Brazil as the Portuguese royal family fled to Europe during Napoleon's rule. In 1822, Brazilians asked him to rule, and he agreed, declaring Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Brazil's path to independence was more peaceful compared to other parts of Latin America.

Explore the significant figures and key events of the Latin American Revolutions, including the roles of Toussaint Louvre, Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, Miguel Hidalgo, and Don Pedro I in the fight for independence. Learn about the liberation movements and struggles that shaped Latin America's history during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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