Late Adulthood and Neurocognitive Disorders Quiz
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Late Adulthood and Neurocognitive Disorders Quiz

Test your knowledge of late adulthood and neurocognitive disorders with this quiz. Explore topics such as cognitive development, sexual functioning, neurocognitive disorders, retirement stages, living arrangements, ageism, and social networks in late adulthood. Gain insights into the challenges and characteristics of late adulthood and enhance your understanding of cognitive changes and age-related differences.

Created by
@HeartwarmingConsciousness

Questions and Answers

What percentage of older adults have hypertension?

56.7%

Which health concern in late adulthood is characterized by bones becoming very fragile and breaking easily?

Osteoporosis

What is the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

Exposure to tobacco smoke

What percentage of newly diagnosed cancer and cancer deaths occur in individuals aged 65 and above?

<p>60% and 70% respectively</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main characteristic of Parkinson's disease?

<p>Motor tremors and poor coordination</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main cause of shingles in older adults?

<p>Viral infection</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which health concern in late adulthood is characterized by a progressive lung disease making it difficult to breathe?

<p>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most prevalent chronic condition among older adults?

<p>High cholesterol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main effect of osteoarthritis on the body?

<p>Chronic pain and loss of joint functioning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the recommended amount of sleep for older adults per night?

<p>7-9 hours</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main characteristic of sleep apnea?

<p>Repeated short pauses in breathing during sleep</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main impact of age-related changes on heart disease risk?

<p>Stiffening of blood vessels and valves</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main cause of cellular senescence according to the text?

<p>Shortening of telomeres</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the innate immune system?

<p>Alert the body of an impending threat</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of an excess of the stress hormone cortisol according to the text?

<p>Increased development of diabetes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of cataracts according to the text?

<p>Clouding of the lens of the eye</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main cause of presbycusis according to the text?

<p>Gradual loss of hearing in late adulthood</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of presbyosmia according to the text?

<p>Loss of smell due to aging</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main cause of balance problems in late adulthood according to the text?

<p>Decline in inner ear functioning</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of pain concealment in older adults according to the text?

<p>Reduced sensitivity to pain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the recommended proportion of protein-rich foods in the diet for older adults according to MyPlate for Older Adults guidelines?

<p>25%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the prevalence of chronic conditions in adults aged 75 and older according to the text?

<p>90%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of chronic conditions in late adulthood according to the text?

<p>Affect daily life and require continuing medical attention</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of increased weight gain in older adults according to the text?

<p>Reduced activity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which health conditions can affect sexual functioning in late life?

<p>Arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, and hormonal issues</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of memory shows greater age-related declines than semantic memory?

<p>Episodic memory</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory attributes age-related cognitive differences to changes in processing speed?

<p>Processing speed theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most common type of neurocognitive disorder in late adulthood?

<p>Alzheimer's disease</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which memory involves remembering things to do in the future and shows more age-related declines for time-based prospective memories?

<p>Prospective memory</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which aspect of attention in older adults is affected by changes in sensory functioning and speed of information processing?

<p>Selective attention</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the ability to use accumulated practical knowledge for good judgment in late adulthood called?

<p>Wisdom</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which memory type is negatively affected by age, with the central executive being the most impacted?

<p>Working memory</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory attributes age-related cognitive differences to sensory deficits in older adults?

<p>Sensory deficits theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of memory involves using knowledge or experience to compensate in cognitive activities in older adults?

<p>Semantic memory</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for remembering things to do in the future and showing more age-related declines for time-based prospective memories?

<p>Prospective memory</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of memory shows declines in recall memory but has an 'age advantage' in using knowledge or experience to compensate in cognitive activities?

<p>Semantic memory</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference between solitude and loneliness?

<p>Solitude is gaining self-awareness and pursuing one's interests, while loneliness is caused by discrepancy between desired and actual social contact</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a significant life stressor for adults 65 and older?

<p>Widowhood</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the widowhood mortality effect?

<p>Higher risk of death after the death of a spouse</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the trend of cohabitation among older adults?

<p>Cohabitation is increasing among older adults</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a risk factor for substance abuse in late life?

<p>Social isolation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most commonly used substance in late life?

<p>Alcohol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference in dating preferences between men and women in late adulthood?

<p>Men seek physical attractiveness and offer status related information, while women want older men until age 75</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common experience for LGBT elders in the United States?

<p>Reduced social support from family</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a risk factor for elder abuse?

<p>Cognitive impairment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is successful aging according to Rowe and Kahn (1997)?

<p>Relative avoidance of disease, disability, and risk factors; Maintenance of high physical and cognitive functioning; Active engagement in social and productive activities</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the concept of selective optimization with compensation according to Baltes?

<p>Elder makes adjustments to continue living independently and actively; Compensate by choosing other ways to achieve their goals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a concern regarding sexual health in late adulthood?

<p>Age doesn’t eliminate the risk of STDs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of vascular neurocognitive disorder?

<p>Blockage of cerebral blood vessels</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic feature of neurocognitive disorder with Lewy bodies?

<p>Microscopic protein deposits in neurons</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of adults aged 65 and over were employed or seeking employment in 2015?

<p>8.8%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of adults over 65 continue to work?

<p>18.5%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the stages of retirement according to the text?

<p>Remote pre-retirement, immediate pre-retirement, actual retirement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for prejudice based on age?

<p>Ageism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the poverty rate difference between women 65+ and men?

<p>Women 65+ are 70% more likely to be poor than men</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most common living arrangement for elders?

<p>Living with a spouse</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is Erikson's psychosocial task of late adulthood?

<p>Integrity vs despair</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which theory emphasizes the prioritization of time spent with emotionally close significant others?

<p>Socioemotional selectivity theory</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are post-retirement activities according to the text?

<p>Staying active and socially engaged, seeking educational experiences, and additional training for encore careers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of maintaining social networks in late adulthood according to the text?

<p>Greater life satisfaction, better physical and mental health, and a sense of purpose and social connections</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Cognitive Development and Neurocognitive Disorders in Late Adulthood

  • Only 5% of women aged 52 to 72 report being sexually active due to various factors like health conditions and feelings about sex.
  • Health conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, and hormonal issues can affect sexual functioning in late life.
  • The best way to experience a healthy sex life in later life is to keep sexually active at younger ages.
  • Cognitive development in late adulthood includes changes in memory, cognitive losses, intelligence, and neurocognitive disorders.
  • Working memory is negatively affected by age, with the central executive being the most impacted.
  • Episodic memory shows greater age-related declines than semantic memory, but older adults often outperform younger adults on semantic tasks.
  • Prospective memory, which involves remembering things to do in the future, shows more age-related declines for time-based prospective memories.
  • Older adults show declines in recall memory but have an "age advantage" in using knowledge or experience to compensate in cognitive activities.
  • Attention is affected by changes in sensory functioning and speed of information processing in older adults.
  • Older adults use more effective strategies than younger adults for problem solving, particularly in social and emotional contexts.
  • Reasons for age-related cognitive differences include processing speed theory, inhibition theory, and sensory deficits.
  • Intelligence and wisdom in late adulthood are dependent on brain functioning and experience, with wisdom being the ability to use accumulated practical knowledge for good judgment. Neurocognitive disorders, previously called dementia, include major and minor neurocognitive disorders, with Alzheimer's disease being the most common type.

Late Adulthood and Neurocognitive Disorders

  • Vascular neurocognitive disorder is caused by blockage of cerebral blood vessels, affecting only one part of the brain, and is linked to risk factors like smoking, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension.
  • Neurocognitive disorder with Lewy bodies is characterized by microscopic protein deposits in neurons, affecting neurotransmitters and leading to impaired thinking, movement, behavior, and mood.
  • In 2015, 8.8 million adults aged 65 and over were employed or seeking employment, with older workers showing lower absenteeism and better performance in jobs requiring social skills and accumulated knowledge.
  • The average retirement age is 65, but 18.5% of adults over 65 continue to work, with 60% transitioning to bridge jobs and 15% finding another job after full retirement.
  • Retirement stages include the remote pre-retirement phase, immediate pre-retirement phase, actual retirement, honeymoon phase, disenchantment phase, and reorientation phase, each with specific characteristics and challenges.
  • Post-retirement activities include staying active and socially engaged, seeking educational experiences, and additional training for encore careers.
  • Ageism, prejudice based on age, can affect the well-being of older adults, leading to stereotype threat, self-fulfilling prophecies, and potential ignorance of health problems.
  • Poverty rates among older adults differ by gender, marital status, race, and age, with women 65+ being 70% more likely to be poor than men, and poverty being more prevalent among older racial minorities.
  • Living arrangements in late adulthood vary, with most elders living with a spouse and a declining number living alone, and intergenerational households being unlikely.
  • Erikson's psychosocial task of integrity vs despair involves retrospective accounting of life, with integrity representing finding meaning in one's life and accepting one's accomplishments, while despair can stem from bitterness and resentment.
  • The activity theory suggests that staying active leads to greater life satisfaction, better physical and mental health, and a sense of purpose and social connections, with goals needing to be realistic.
  • Social networks in late adulthood are maintained by exchanges in social support, with close relationships being stable and peripheral relationships less stable, and the socioemotional selectivity theory emphasizing the prioritization of time spent with emotionally close significant others.

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