Cognitive Development and Aging Quiz

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58 Questions

What is the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. population?

Adults 65+

What can a current 65-year-old expect in terms of remaining life expectancy?

19 more years

By 2020, what fraction of the population is projected to be 65+?

1/4

How has the life expectancy changed since 1950 for the aging population?

Increase of 5.5 years

What percentage of the United States population was 65 years and older in 2012?

13.7%

What is the projected percentage of the global population aged 65+ by 2050?

16%

What is the average worldwide life expectancy as of 2015?

71.4 years

What is the average life expectancy for males in the United States as of 2012?

69.1 years

What age category in late adulthood is associated with increased health problems and care needs?

Oldest-old (85-99)

What is the main reason for the greatest increase in the percentage of people aged 65+ in developing nations?

Declines in fertility

What is the gender difference in life expectancy attributed to?

Estrogen's protective effect on the circulatory system

What percentage of the United States population is projected to be 65 and older in 2030?

20.3%

What percentage of older adults have hypertension?

56.7%

Which chronic condition has the highest prevalence among older adults?

High cholesterol

What percentage of older adults have heart disease?

17.9%

Which health concern in late adulthood is characterized by bone fragility?

Osteoporosis

Which health condition is caused by the reactivation of the chicken pox virus?

Shingles

What percentage of newly diagnosed cancer occurs in individuals aged 65 and above?

60%

Which health concern in late adulthood is associated with decreased dopamine in the brain?

Parkinson's disease

What is the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

Exposure to tobacco smoke

What is the recommended nightly sleep duration for older adults?

7-9 hours

What is the main characteristic of restless legs syndrome?

Tingling, crawling feeling in legs

What percentage of men in late life still have sexual interest/activity?

72%

What percentage of older adults have chronic bronchitis?

5.0%

Which theory of aging includes DNA damage and mitochondrial damage as key factors?

Free radical theory

What is a common physical change in late adulthood related to the heart?

Thickening of heart valves

Which change in body composition is typical in late adulthood?

Reduced bone density

What is a common skin and hair change in late adulthood?

Slower healing

What is the term for the muscle changes in late adulthood leading to weakness and frailty?

Sarcopenia

What is the approximate height loss every 10 years after age 40?

1 inch

What are common vision changes in late adulthood related to?

Cataracts, macular degeneration, and glaucoma

What is the term for the hearing changes in late adulthood leading to reduced sensitivity?

Presbycusis

What is a common taste and smell change in late adulthood?

Presbyosmia

What is a common touch change in late adulthood?

Altered sensations of vibration

What percentage of elders are affected by chronic pain?

60%-75%

How do sensory and dental changes in later life impact nutrition?

Increased use of salt and sugar

What are the types of neurocognitive disorders mentioned in late adulthood?

Vascular neurocognitive disorder and Neurocognitive disorder with Lewy bodies

What percentage of adults over 65 continue to work?

18.5%

What are the stages of retirement mentioned in the text?

Remote pre-retirement, immediate pre-retirement, actual retirement, honeymoon, disenchantment, reorientation

What are some post-retirement activities mentioned in the text?

Seeking educational experiences and additional training for encore careers

What is Erikson's psychosocial task in late adulthood?

Integrity vs despair

What does ageism refer to?

Prejudice based on age

What may impact older adults' well-being, especially nonwhite elders?

Gender, marital status, race, and age differences

What is the concept of integrity vs despair according to Erikson?

Finding meaning in one's life and accepting accomplishments vs bitterness and resentment

What does activity theory suggest for late adulthood?

Staying active leads to greater life satisfaction, better physical and mental health, and a sense of purpose and social connections

What does generativity in late life involve?

Volunteering and grandparents raising grandchildren

Which health conditions can affect sexual functioning in late life?

Arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, and hormonal issues

Which type of memory shows greater age-related declines than semantic memory?

Episodic memory

What is the ability to use accumulated practical knowledge for good judgment called?

Wisdom

Which theory attributes age-related cognitive differences to changes in sensory functioning and speed of information processing?

Processing speed theory

What type of memory involves remembering things to do in the future?

Prospective memory

Which memory function is negatively affected by age, with the central executive being the most impacted?

Working memory

What is the most common type of neurocognitive disorder in late adulthood?

Alzheimer's disease

Which group uses more effective strategies than younger adults for problem solving, particularly in social and emotional contexts?

Older adults

What is the best way to experience a healthy sex life in later life, according to the text?

To keep sexually active at younger ages

Which type of memory involves using knowledge or experience to compensate in cognitive activities?

Semantic memory

Which theory attributes age-related cognitive differences to the brain's ability to inhibit irrelevant information?

Inhibition theory

What percentage of women aged 52 to 72 report being sexually active?

5%

Study Notes

Cognitive Development and Neurocognitive Disorders in Late Adulthood

  • Only 5% of women aged 52 to 72 report being sexually active due to various factors like health conditions and feelings about sex.
  • Health conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, and hormonal issues can affect sexual functioning in late life.
  • The best way to experience a healthy sex life in later life is to keep sexually active at younger ages.
  • Cognitive development in late adulthood includes changes in memory, cognitive losses, intelligence, and neurocognitive disorders.
  • Working memory is negatively affected by age, with the central executive being the most impacted.
  • Episodic memory shows greater age-related declines than semantic memory, but older adults often outperform younger adults on semantic tasks.
  • Prospective memory, which involves remembering things to do in the future, shows more age-related declines for time-based prospective memories.
  • Older adults show declines in recall memory but have an "age advantage" in using knowledge or experience to compensate in cognitive activities.
  • Attention is affected by changes in sensory functioning and speed of information processing in older adults.
  • Older adults use more effective strategies than younger adults for problem solving, particularly in social and emotional contexts.
  • Reasons for age-related cognitive differences include processing speed theory, inhibition theory, and sensory deficits.
  • Intelligence and wisdom in late adulthood are dependent on brain functioning and experience, with wisdom being the ability to use accumulated practical knowledge for good judgment. Neurocognitive disorders, previously called dementia, include major and minor neurocognitive disorders, with Alzheimer's disease being the most common type.

Test your knowledge of cognitive development and neurocognitive disorders in late adulthood with this informative quiz. Explore topics such as memory, intelligence, sexual functioning, and the impact of aging on cognitive abilities. Gain insights into the changes and challenges associated with cognitive development in later life.

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