Ketogenesis and Ketone Bodies Synthesis Quiz

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18 Questions

Where are ketone bodies synthesized?

Liver

During which conditions do the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles use ketone bodies as a source of energy?

Diabetes

Which of the following tissues can utilize ketone bodies as a source of energy?

Heart cells

What is the term used for the oxidation of ketone bodies in extrahepatic tissues?

Ketolysis

What happens to blood buffers with continued production of ketone bodies?

Depletion of blood buffers

What is the overall condition called when there are higher quantities of ketone bodies in the blood and urine?

Ketosis

Where does the β-oxidation of fatty acids take place?

Mitochondria

Which enzyme catalyzes the transport of long-chain acyl CoA into the mitochondrial matrix?

Carnitine Acyl Transferase (CAT)

What are the products of each cycle of β-oxidation of fatty acids?

Acetyl CoA, FADH2, NADH+H+

Where does fatty acid synthesis occur?

Cytosol

What are the ketone bodies produced during ketogenesis?

Acetoacetate, β hydroxy butarate, Acetone

Which organ does not undergo fatty acid oxidation due to the absence of mitochondria?

RBCs

What is the precursor of hormones like prostaglandins?

Arachidonic acid

What is the primary carrier for the transport of plasma free fatty acids?

Albumin

What is the term used for the breakdown of ketone bodies back into acetyl CoA?

Ketolysis

Which of the following is not a structural component of membrane lipids?

Free fatty acids

What is the product of the desaturation of a fatty acid chain?

Unsaturated fatty acid

Which organelle is primarily involved in fatty acid oxidation?

Mitochondria

Study Notes

Ketone Bodies and Energy Metabolism

  • Ketone bodies are synthesized in the liver mitochondria.
  • The brain, heart, and skeletal muscles use ketone bodies as a source of energy during fasting, starvation, and diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • The following tissues can utilize ketone bodies as a source of energy: brain, heart, and skeletal muscles.

Ketone Body Oxidation

  • The oxidation of ketone bodies in extrahepatic tissues is termed ketolysis.
  • With continued production of ketone bodies, blood buffers are depleted, leading to metabolic acidosis.

Ketosis and Lipid Metabolism

  • The overall condition characterized by high quantities of ketone bodies in the blood and urine is called ketosis or ketoacidosis.
  • β-oxidation of fatty acids takes place in the mitochondrial matrix.
  • Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) catalyzes the transport of long-chain acyl CoA into the mitochondrial matrix.
  • Each cycle of β-oxidation of fatty acids produces acetyl CoA, NADH, FADH2, and ATP.

Fatty Acid Synthesis and Transport

  • Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol.
  • The ketone bodies produced during ketogenesis are acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid.
  • The organ that does not undergo fatty acid oxidation due to the absence of mitochondria is red blood cells.
  • Arachidonic acid is the precursor of hormones like prostaglandins.
  • Albumin is the primary carrier for the transport of plasma free fatty acids.

Breakdown of Ketone Bodies

  • The breakdown of ketone bodies back into acetyl CoA is termed ketolysis.

Lipid Structure and Function

  • Cholesterol is not a structural component of membrane lipids.
  • The product of the desaturation of a fatty acid chain is an unsaturated fatty acid.
  • Mitochondria are primarily involved in fatty acid oxidation.

Test your knowledge on the synthesis of ketone bodies, their utilization by different tissues, and the process of ketogenesis taking place in the liver. Explore how ketone bodies serve as an alternative energy source during periods of starvation, diabetes, and intense muscle activity.

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