Introduction to Petrology and Igneous Rocks

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20 Questions

What is the main focus of petrology?

The study of the Earth's rocks

Which type of igneous rock forms with large mineral grains due to slow cooling beneath the Earth's surface?

Granite

What process forms sedimentary rocks?

Accumulation and compaction of sediments

Which type of rock results from the transformation of existing rocks due to heat, pressure, or chemical changes?

Metamorphic rock

What causes extrusive or volcanic rocks to have fine-grained mineral grains?

Rapid cooling due to loss of heat to the surrounding environment

Which type of igneous rock contains high amounts of silica and includes granite and rhyolite?

Felsic igneous rocks

Where is basalt commonly found as an igneous rock?

Oceanic crust

What process causes magma to cool and solidify, leading to the crystallization of minerals within it?

Crystallization

Which type of igneous rock consists mainly of ferromagnesian minerals and is high in iron and magnesium?

Mafic igneous rocks

In which location do igneous rocks such as granite and gabbro form, often in mountainous regions?

Continental crust

What are the three major groups into which geologists divide rocks?

Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic

Which factor strongly influences the nature and appearance of a rock?

The minerals that compose the rock

Where do hot spots occur in relation to the Earth's lithosphere?

Beneath both oceanic and continental lithosphere

What do petrologic studies typically aim to achieve?

Interpretation and classification of rocks

Which discipline heavily influences petrology besides chemical and mineralogical aspects?

Structural geology

What is the significance of divergent plate boundaries in the context of rock formation?

They are the primary sites of seafloor spreading

In petrology, which type of silicate consists of a continuous 3-dimensional network of tetrahedra sharing all 4 corners?

Tectosilicate

Which type of silicate forms rings by sharing two corners of tetrahedra?

Cyclosilicate

What is the Si:O ratio in Amphibole, a mineral belonging to the Inosilicate group?

4:11

Which silicate type is characterized by independent tetrahedra satisfied in charge and held together by cations?

Nesosilicate

Explore the fundamentals of petrology, the study of rocks' origin, composition, and distribution, as well as the formation and characteristics of igneous rocks. Gain insights into the Earth's geological processes and internal structure through this introductory overview.

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