Introduction to Acids, Bases, and Salts in Dentistry

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24 Questions

According to the Arrhenius model, what type of ions do acids produce in aqueous solutions?

Hydrogen ions (H+)

What is the main limitation of the Arrhenius model of acids and bases?

It fails to account for compounds that do not contain the hydroxide ion, such as ammonia.

According to the Brønsted-Lowry model, what is the role of water when it reacts with hydrogen chloride?

Water acts as a Brønsted-Lowry base, accepting a proton from hydrogen chloride.

What is the difference in the equilibrium behavior between a strong acid like hydrogen chloride and a weak base like ammonia, according to the Brønsted-Lowry model?

Strong acids ionize completely, while weak bases ionize incompletely and form a dynamic equilibrium.

What is the definition of an amphoteric (or amphiprotic) substance in the Brønsted-Lowry model?

A substance that can act as both an acid and a base in different chemical reactions.

Which of the following statements about the Brønsted-Lowry model of acids and bases is true?

The Brønsted-Lowry model considers the transfer of protons between reactants.

What are the products formed when a dilute acid reacts with a metal carbonate?

Salt, carbon dioxide, water

What defines an alkali?

A solution of a base in water

What is the defining characteristic of bases in terms of pH?

pH between 8 and 14

What happens when a base restores the blue color to litmus paper that was turned red by an acid?

It remains blue

What characterizes soluble bases according to the text?

They are called alkalis

What determines the strength of an alkali according to the text?

The amount of OH- ions in solution

What is the definition of an Arrhenius acid according to the text?

A substance that donates protons (H+)

According to the passage, what is the significance of maintaining a specific pH in human blood?

A sustained increase or decrease of only 0.2 pH units could lead to death.

Which of the following statements about acids and bases is true according to the passage?

Acids and bases are substances with specific physical and chemical properties.

According to the passage, what was Arrhenius's contribution to the understanding of acids and bases?

He was the first to characterize acids and bases in terms of their chemical properties.

What is the definition of an Arrhenius base according to the text?

A substance that accepts hydroxide ions (OH-)

According to the passage, what is the reason for different definitions of acids and bases?

It is a matter of convenience in applying the concept to a particular chemical problem.

What defines a Lewis acid?

Donates lone pair electrons

Which property is NOT characteristic of strong acids?

Forms a low H+ concentration in solution

What type of acid is hydrochloric acid?

Strong acid

Which acid is considered monoprotic?

$HCl$

What is a unique characteristic of Lewis bases?

Accepting lone pair electrons

Which statement is true regarding the strength of acids?

$H2SO4$ is an example of a weak acid

Study Notes

Acids and Bases

  • Acids are solutes that produce hydrogen ions (H+ (aq)) in aqueous solutions.
  • Bases produce hydroxide ions (OH- (aq)) when dissolved in water.

Arrhenius' Acid and Base

  • In 1884, Arrhenius defined an acid as a substance that gives H+ and a base as one that gives OH-.
  • According to Arrhenius, acid-base reactions involve the dissociation of HA (acid) and BOH (base) to form H+ and OH-.

Brønsted-Lowry Acid and Base

  • In 1923, Brønsted and Lowry recognized that acid-base interactions involve the transfer of a proton (H+ ion) from one reactant to another.
  • According to Brønsted and Lowry, hydrogen chloride reacts with water to form a hydronium ion and a chloride ion, with hydrogen chloride acting as a Brønsted-Lowry acid and water as a Brønsted-Lowry base.
  • Ammonia reacts with water to form a dynamic equilibrium with the products of the reaction, with ammonia acting as a Brønsted-Lowry base and water as a Brønsted-Lowry acid.

Properties of Acids

  • pH values lower than the neutral value of 7.
  • Sharp sour taste.
  • React with certain metals to liberate hydrogen gas.
  • Soluble in water, releasing H+ ions in solution.
  • Often corrosive.
  • Strong acids can damage the skin and be dangerous.
  • Neutralized by bases.
  • React with carbonates and bicarbonates to give off carbon dioxide gas.
  • React with active metals to release hydrogen gas.

Properties of Bases

  • pH values between 8 and 14.
  • Soluble bases are called alkalis.
  • Bases are oxides or hydroxides of metallic elements.
  • React with acids to neutralize them, forming salts and water.
  • Contain a hydroxide ion (OH-) that reacts with and 'picks up' a H+ ion to form a water molecule.
  • Bitter taste.
  • Soapy feeling when in a solution.
  • Restore blue color to litmus that was turned red by an acid.

Strength of Acids and Bases

  • The strength of an acid depends on the concentration of H+ ions formed in solution.
  • Strong acids produce a high concentration of H+ ions, whereas weak acids produce a low H+ concentration in solution.
  • The strength of an alkali depends on the amount of OH- ions in solution.
  • More ionization results in a stronger alkali.

Classification of Acids and Bases

  • Arrhenius acids and bases.
  • Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases.
  • Lewis acids and bases.

Lewis Acids and Bases

  • A Lewis acid is defined as any species that accepts lone pair electrons.
  • A Lewis base is any species that donates lone pair electrons.

Learn about the sensitivity of living organisms to acidity, the importance of maintaining a precise pH level in human blood, and the evolving definitions of acids and bases over time. Explore the significance of acids, bases, and salts in the field of dentistry.

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