Internet Structure: Network of Networks

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Which layer of the Internet protocol stack is responsible for routing datagrams from source to destination?


Which layer of the ISO/OSI reference model allows applications to interpret the meaning of data, such as encryption and compression?


Which protocol is responsible for process-process data transfer in the Internet protocol stack?


In the Internet stack, which layer is responsible for data transfer between neighboring network elements?


Which layer of the ISO/OSI reference model is responsible for synchronization, checkpointing, and data exchange recovery?


What is the purpose of layering in airline functionality?

To allow for identification and relationship of system components

In the context of air travel, why is modularization through layering important?

To ease maintenance and updating of the system

What does a layered reference model provide for complex systems?

A structured approach to discussing system components

How does layering help in dealing with complex systems?

By making changes in one layer transparent to the rest of the system

What is an advantage provided by layering in airline functionality maintenance?

Ensuring any change only impacts the specific layer being modified

Why is layering considered beneficial for complex systems?

To make maintenance easier by isolating changes within each layer

In the Internet structure, which type of ISPs connect directly to tier-1 ISPs and pay for their services?

Tier-2 ISPs

Which type of ISPs sometimes peer directly with each other, bypassing tier-1 ISPs?

Tier-3 ISPs

What kind of network is considered the last hop network, closest to end systems?

Tier-3 ISPs

Which entities treat each other as equals with no charges in the Internet structure?

Large content distributors

What do tier-2 networks sometimes do to bypass tier-1 ISPs?

Peer directly with each other

How do packet passing occur in the Internet structure from source host to destination host?

Through many networks along the way

What is the purpose of sending three packets towards a router?

To test the path towards the destination

What happens if a packet arrives at a full queue?

The packet is lost or dropped

What does throughput refer to in data communication?

The rate at which bits are transferred between sender and receiver

What is the consequence of having Rs less than Rc in terms of throughput?

Reduced average end-to-end throughput

How does a sender measure the delay in data transmission?

By calculating the time between sending a packet and receiving a reply

What happens to a packet that arrives at a full buffer?

It is dropped or lost due to lack of space

What is the end-end delay for a packet with size L transmitted at a rate of R bps?


In packet-switching, what can lead to packet loss?

Aggregating resource demand that exceeds available resources

Which function in the network layer determines the source-destination route taken by packets?


What does circuit switching allocate for each 'call' between source and destination?

'Pieces' of link bandwidth using frequency division

What is the key difference between packet switching and circuit switching in terms of network efficiency?

Packet switching is more efficient in resource utilization by allowing more users to use the network.

What is the function of forwarding in the network layer?

Moving packets from router's input to the appropriate output

Learn about the hierarchical structure of the internet, with a small number of well-connected large networks at the center. Explore tier-1 commercial ISPs, large content distributors, and the concept of Internet exchange points (IXPs).

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