Internet Structure and Access Networks Quiz

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Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) _______

Time divided into slots

Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) _______

Frequencies divided into (narrow) frequency bands

Traceroute: program displays the route (path) from source to destination and measures the delay from source to each router along the end-end Internet path. _______


Packet-switching: store-and-forward: packet-switching: hosts break application-layer messages into packets. each packet transmitted at full link capacity. link transmission rate is aka link capacity or link bandwidth. Transmission delay: takes L/R seconds to transmit (push out) L-bit packet into link at R bps Store and forward: entire packet must arrive at router before it can be transmitted on next link End-end delay: 2L/R (above), assuming zero propagation delay (more on delay shortly) Packet-switching: queueing delay, loss: packets will queue, waiting to be transmitted on output link packets queue in router buffers _______

arrival rate to link (temporarily) exceeds output link capacity: packet loss packets can be dropped (lost) if memory (buffer) in router fills up

Packet delay: four sources 1. Transmission Delay (dtrans): Takes L/R seconds _______

Processing Delay (dproc): Check bit errors, determine output link

Queueing Delay (dqueue): _______

Propagation Delay (dprop)

Throughput: _______

Throughput: rate (bits/time unit) at which bits are being sent from sender to receiver Link capacity (bandwidth) is meant for a specific link. )Throughput(‫) بيقل ال‬Loss(‫ كل ما يحصل عندي أو كل ما يزيد ال‬

Packet-switching vs Circuit switching: _______

Circuit Switching

Compare Reserves channels _______

Not reserved

Channels reserve can’t be used by any other ongoing communication _______

Can be used by any other ongoing communication

Idle Resource _______

No waiting at the switches

Waiting at the switches if data rate is more than the link tx capacity _______


Internet structure:  Network edge: hosts: clients and servers servers often in data centers  Access networks, physical media: wired, wireless communication links  Network core:  interconnected routers  network of networks Q-How to connect end systems to edge router. Residential access nets ‫زي انك توصل األنترنت في بيتك‬ Institutional access networks (school, company) ‫أدخل ع الشبكة من خالل المكان أو المؤسسة‬ Mobile access networks (Wi-Fi, 4G/5G) ‫من خالل الموبايل‬ Wireless Access Networks:  via base station aka “access point” Physical Media: Media Physical Media Guided Media signals propagate in solid media: copper, fiber coaxial Radio Media Unguided Media signals propagate freely, e.g., radio The Network Core: Q- How is data transmitted through net.  Circuit switching: dedicated circuit per call.  Packet switching: data sent thru net in discrete “chunks”. Shared or Dedicated access among users.  A dedicated internet connection ‫حاجة مخصصة ليك انتا بس‬  A shared cable internet connection ‫أكتر من واحد بيستخدم السرعة أو االتصال‬ Circuit switching:  dedicated resources: no sharing ‫خالص أتحجز‬  circuit-like (guaranteed) performance.

Test your knowledge of internet structure and access networks, including the network edge, access networks, physical media, and the network core. Learn about connecting end systems to edge routers and different types of access networks such as residential, institutional, and mobile access networks.

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