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# Internal-Consistency Reliability Quiz

Created by
@HallowedHeliotrope

### Which of the following is NOT a factor affecting internal consistency reliability?

The number of respondents

### What is the most common method of estimating reliability?

Internal consistency

### What is the relationship between the length of a test and its internal consistency reliability?

A longer test may yield more reliable scores than a shorter test, all other things equal

### Internal consistency is a better alternative to alternative forms and test-retest procedures.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### The internal consistency reliability procedure requires respondents to complete one form of a test on one occasion

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does the Spearman-Brown formula adjust for in the internal consistency reliability estimate of a test?

<p>The actual length of the test.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following is a limitation of the split-half reliability approach?

<p>It is affected by the way the test is split into halves</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the major advantage of the split-half reliability approach over the alternative forms reliability method?

<p>It assumes equal true scores and error variances</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the Spearman-Brown Formula used for?

<p>Calculating internal consistency reliability</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Is the Spearman-Brown Formula useful for data that is standardized (t-scores & z-scores)?

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following best describes Cronbach's alpha?

<p>A way of assessing reliability by comparing shared variance among items to overall variance</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Why is it important for an instrument to have a high level of covariance among its items?

<p>To ensure that the instrument is measuring what it is supposed to measure</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which assumption is NOT assumed for Cronbach's alpha

<p>All items have equal means</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which of the following represents the numerator in Cronbach's alpha formula?

<p>The true score variance</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does the denominator in Cronbach's alpha formula represent?

<p>The sum of the square inter-item covariance matrix</p> Signup and view all the answers

### The standardised coefficient alpha is used for raw scores

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does Cronbach's alpha formula represent at the theoretical level?

<p>The ratio of true score variance to total variance</p> Signup and view all the answers

### The standardised coefficient alpha should have similar variances and be similar in magnitude to the coefficient alpha

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main limitation of Cronbach's alpha when it comes to positively correlated error terms between two items within a test?

<p>It cannot take these positively correlated error terms into account</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which formula is mostly of historical interest for estimating internal consistency reliability associated with composite scores based on dichotomously scored items?

<p>Kuder-Richardson 20 formula</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the Kuder-Richardson formula used for?

<p>Estimating internal consistency reliability</p> Signup and view all the answers

### If the assumption of essential tau-equivalence is not satisfied, then Cronbach’s alpha will tend to:

<p>Underestimate reliability</p> Signup and view all the answers

### With a reasonable amount of items (10 or more) Cronbach’s alpha will underestimate reliability by:

<p>.02</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which formula is a better alternative to the Kuder-Richardson formula for estimating internal consistency reliability for non-dichotomously scored items?

<p>Cronbach's alpha formula</p> Signup and view all the answers

### A smaller number of items (say, 3 to 6 items) will cause the degree of the Cronbach's alpha underestimation to lessen

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In practice, violating the assumption of non-correlated error terms can result in Cronbach’s alpha to:

<p>Overestimate the correlation by .05 - .06</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main factor to consider when deciding whether to add an item to a test to increase its reliability?

<p>Whether the item has a high inter-item correlation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the textbook's recommendation for added items to a test in order to increase Cronbach's alpha?

<p>Items must be tau-equivalent to other items</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of adding an item to a test according to the text?

<p>To increase the mean inter-item correlation</p> Signup and view all the answers

## Study Notes

### Factors Affecting Internal Consistency Reliability

• The length of a test and its internal consistency reliability are positively related.
• Internal consistency is not affected by the time of administration, respondents' characteristics, or the test's content.

### Estimating Reliability

• The most common method of estimating reliability is internal consistency reliability.
• Internal consistency is a better alternative to alternative forms and test-retest procedures.

### Internal Consistency Reliability Procedure

• The internal consistency reliability procedure requires respondents to complete one form of a test on one occasion.

### Spearman-Brown Formula

• The Spearman-Brown formula adjusts for the length of a test in the internal consistency reliability estimate.
• The formula is used to estimate the reliability of a test based on its current length and the desired length.
• The formula is not useful for data that is standardized (t-scores & z-scores).

### Split-Half Reliability Approach

• The major advantage of the split-half reliability approach is that it can be used when there is no alternative form of the test.
• A limitation of the split-half reliability approach is that it may not be suitable for tests with a small number of items.

### Cronbach's Alpha

• Cronbach's alpha is a measure of internal consistency reliability.
• It is important for an instrument to have a high level of covariance among its items to ensure reliability.
• Cronbach's alpha formula represents the average correlation among all possible split-half combinations of items.
• The numerator in Cronbach's alpha formula represents the sum of the covariances between items.
• The denominator in Cronbach's alpha formula represents the variance of the total score.
• The standardised coefficient alpha is used for raw scores and should have similar variances and be similar in magnitude to the coefficient alpha.
• At the theoretical level, Cronbach's alpha formula represents the proportion of the total variance that is due to the true score.

### Limitations of Cronbach's Alpha

• The main limitation of Cronbach's alpha is that it can be affected by positively correlated error terms between two items within a test.
• If the assumption of essential tau-equivalence is not satisfied, then Cronbach’s alpha will tend to underestimate reliability.
• With a reasonable amount of items (10 or more), Cronbach’s alpha will underestimate reliability by 5-10%.
• A smaller number of items (say, 3 to 6 items) will cause the degree of the Cronbach's alpha underestimation to lessen.
• In practice, violating the assumption of non-correlated error terms can result in Cronbach’s alpha to overestimate reliability.

### Kuder-Richardson Formula

• The Kuder-Richardson formula is of historical interest for estimating internal consistency reliability associated with composite scores based on dichotomously scored items.
• The formula is used for estimating internal consistency reliability for dichotomously scored items.

### Adding Items to a Test

• The main factor to consider when deciding whether to add an item to a test is the item's correlation with the total score.
• The textbook's recommendation for adding items to a test is to add items that are highly correlated with the total score.
• The purpose of adding an item to a test is to increase its reliability.

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## Description

Test your knowledge on internal-consistency reliability, the most common method of estimating reliability. Learn about its practical alternative to the alternative forms procedure and the test-retest procedure. Explore how the internal consistency reliability procedure treats different items within the same test as different forms.

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