Inflammation and Tissue Repair NUR2018 Lecture 2 Quiz

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31 Questions

What is the difference in half-life between macrophages and blood monocytes?

Macrophages have a longer half-life than blood monocytes.

What type of infections are eosinophils responsible for?

Eosinophils are responsible for parasitic infections.

What is the main function of mast cells?

Activation of mast cells results in the release of preformed contents of their granules.

What types of reactions are basophils responsible for?

Basophils are responsible for allergic reactions.

How do monocytes mature at the site of injury?

Monocytes migrate to the site of injury and mature into larger macrophages.

What is the significance of longer-lived phagocytes in the immune response?

Longer-lived phagocytes help destroy the causative agent and resolve the inflammatory process.

What are the four main purposes of the inflammatory response?

Limit tissue damage, destroy microorganisms, initiate adaptive immunity, begin healing process

What are the cardinal signs of acute inflammation?

Rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain)

How quickly is the inflammatory response activated after damage occurs?

Within seconds

What type of tissues does inflammation occur in?

Tissues with a blood supply (vascularized)

How does the inflammatory response depend on cellular and chemical components?

Activity of both cellular and inflammatory mediators

How are inflammatory conditions commonly named?

By adding the suffix -itis to the affected organ or system

What is the primary aim of acute inflammation?

Removing the injurious agent and limiting tissue damage

What triggers acute inflammation?

Various stimuli including infections, immune reactions, trauma, physical or chemical agents, and tissue necrosis

What initiates the vascular phase of acute inflammation?

Injury leading to activation of mast cells and release of chemical mediators

What are the characteristics of the vascular phase of acute inflammation?

Changes in small blood vessels, marked by tissue edema, vasodilation, redness, and warmth

Which mediators induce vasodilation in the vascular stage of acute inflammation?

Histamine and nitric oxide

What is the timeline of acute inflammation in relation to the adaptive immune response?

Occurs before the adaptive immune response becomes established

What are chemotactic cytokines?

Family of small proteins that recruit and direct the migration of immune and inflammatory cells

How do inflammatory chemokines contribute during an inflammatory response?

Recruit leukocytes in response to bacterial toxins and inflammatory cytokines

What are oxygen-derived free radicals?

Released extracellularly from leukocytes after exposure to microbes, cytokines, and immune complexes

What is the role of histamine in the inflammatory process?

To cause capillary dilation and increased permeability

What happens after a break in the skin allows bacteria to enter the tissue?

Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria

What do macrophages do in the inflammatory process?

Leave the bloodstream and phagocytose microbes

What are some examples of agents that can evoke chronic inflammation?

Foreign agents (e.g. talc, silica, asbestos, surgical suture materials), pathogens (e.g. virus, bacteria, fungi, large parasite), injured tissue.

What is the characteristic cellular infiltration in chronic inflammation?

Infiltration by mononuclear cells (macrophages) and lymphocytes (B and T cells) instead of neutrophils.

What proliferates in chronic inflammation instead of exudates?

Fibroblasts proliferate in chronic inflammation instead of exudates.

What is the greater risk associated with chronic inflammation compared to acute inflammation?

Greater risk of scarring and deformity in chronic inflammation.

What are the two patterns of chronic inflammation?

Nonspecific chronic inflammation and granulomatous inflammation.

What is characteristic of nonspecific chronic inflammation?

Diffuse accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes at the site of injury leading to fibroblast proliferation and fibrosis.

What is fibrosis in the context of chronic inflammation?

Fibrosis is the replacement of normal connective tissue or functional parenchymal tissues with scar tissue.

Test your knowledge on acute inflammation, inflammatory mediators, chronic inflammation, and systemic manifestations of inflammation. Topics include cardinal signs, vascular phase, cellular phase, roles of mediators, features of chronic inflammation, and systemic manifestations.

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