Immunology: Innate vs Adaptive Immunity Concepts
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Immunology: Innate vs Adaptive Immunity Concepts

Explore the concepts of innate and adaptive immunity, including innate recognition leading to immunity, PAMPs and PRRs, the danger model of immune initiation, DAMPs, and the maturation process of immature dendritic cells. Learn about the key researchers who conceptualized these theories.

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Questions and Answers

What is the primary function of an immature dendritic cell?

To phagocytose and degrade pathogens

What triggers the maturation of an immature dendritic cell?

Innate recognition of pathogens

Which of the following is a key function of a mature dendritic cell?

Presentation of antigens to T cells

What is the significance of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine related to dendritic cells?

<p>It acknowledged the role of dendritic cells in immune initiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do immature dendritic cells acquire antigens for presentation?

<p>Through receptor-mediated phagocytosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of dendritic cells in the initiation of the adaptive immune response?

<p>To present antigens to T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the supramolecular activation complex (SMAC) in the formation of the immune synapse?

<p>To maintain long-term contacts between T cells and APCs or target cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the 3-signal hypothesis, which of the following is the second signal required for T cell activation?

<p>Co-stimulatory signal CD28 to B7 (CD80/86)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the MHC-ICAM-1 interaction in the formation of the immune synapse?

<p>To maintain long-term contacts between T cells and APCs or target cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary outcome of the 3-signal hypothesis for T cell activation?

<p>T cell proliferation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of the immune synapse in T cell activation?

<p>To maintain long-term contacts between T cells and APCs or target cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main concept that Janeway Jr. conceptualized?

<p>Innate recognition leading to immunity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which signals induce the maturation of an Immature Dendritic Cell?

<p>CCR7</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of a Mature Dendritic Cell?

<p>Specialized for antigen presentation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process is involved in the activation of a naive CD4+ T cell?

<p>Antigen-specific activation signal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do Danger Signals (DAMPs) initiate?

<p>Immune initiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of PAMPS and PRRs in the immune system?

<p>Induce innate recognition leading to immunity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

T Cell Mediated Immunity

  • T cell mediated immunity involves activating a T cell response to the right thing, but not the wrong thing, and generating the right kind of T effector cell for the job.

Immature Dendritic Cells

  • Immature dendritic cells are tissue resident or resident in secondary lymphatic tissues, specialized for antigen uptake.
  • They use receptor-mediated phagocytosis and macropinocytosis to take up antigens.
  • Immature dendritic cells can be induced to mature through innate recognition of pathogens.

Formation of the Immune Synapse

  • The immune synapse is a supramolecular activation complex (SMAC) that maintains long-term contacts between T cells and cells they are interacting with, such as APCs or targets as effectors.
  • The immune synapse is important for signal integration.

3-Signal Hypothesis

  • The 3-signal hypothesis proposes that T cell activation requires three signals:
    • Signal 1: TCR – antigen-specific activation signal
    • Signal 2: Co-stimulatory signal (CD28 ó B7 (CD80/86))
    • Signal 3: IL-2 induction – proliferation

Dendritic Cell Maturation

  • Dendritic cell maturation is induced through innate recognition of pathogens.
  • Mature dendritic cells downregulate phagocytosis and upregulate migration to the T cell zone.
  • They express CCR7, which helps them migrate to the T cell zone.

Activation of Naïve CD4+ T Cells

  • Activation of a naïve CD4+ T cell occurs in the T cell zone of secondary lymphoid tissue.
  • It requires interactions with a mature DC and costimulation (CD80/86).
  • The 3-signal hypothesis is involved in the activation of naïve CD4+ T cells.

Key Players

  • Bruce A. Beutler and Charles A. Dinarello were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2011.
  • Jules A. Hoffmann, Ralph M. Steinman, and Polly Matzinger have made significant contributions to the field of immunology.

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