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# Identification Strategy and Statistical Inference Quiz

Created by
@AppreciatedUranium

## Questions and Answers

### In the context of Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG), what is the primary purpose of controlling for confounders?

To close back-door paths and turn correlation into causal effect.

### Which type of paths in a DAG are considered non-causal?

Paths with at least one arrow against causal order.

### What are back-door paths in a DAG associated with?

Omitted variable bias.

### How are causal paths identified in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?

<p>By following the arrows pointing towards the outcome variable from the cause variable.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens to the identification of a causal effect when there are open non-causal paths in a DAG?

<p>The causal effect is not identified.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), what does X1 represent in the context of the causal relationship between treatment D and outcome Y?

<p>Mediator influenced by the treatment with a causal effect on Y</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main concern related to back-door paths in establishing causal effects between treatment D and outcome Y in a DAG?

<p>Potential omitted variable bias affecting the causal relationship</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How can a complex path like D → X3 ← X4 → X5 → Y be decomposed into simpler structures in a DAG analysis?

<p>Chain, fork, and collider structures</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which type of variable is X2 in relation to the causal path between D and Y?

<p>Collider impacted by both D and Y</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary role of Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) in identifying causal effects?

<p>To differentiate between direct and indirect effects of treatments</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the role of randomization in closing back-door paths in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?

<p>It makes potential outcomes independent of treatment by removing arrows pointing to the target variable.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In a DAG, what does conditioning on a common outcome (collider) typically do to the relationship between the causes?

<p>It introduces a spurious association between the causes.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which criterion states the conditions under which back-door paths are blocked in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?

<p>The Back-Door criterion</p> Signup and view all the answers

### If a back-door path contains a fork I ← M → J in a DAG, when is this path considered blocked?

<p>When the middle node M is in the conditioning set of variables C.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens if an observed variable X2 is omitted in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) when trying to close back-door paths?

<p>Leads to an increase in omitted variable bias.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), what do the nodes represent?

<p>Variables such as outcome, treatment, observed and unobserved factors</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does an acyclic path in a DAG signify?

<p>Non-causal path</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How is omitted variable bias related to Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs)?

<p>Omitted variable bias can lead to unobserved confounding in DAGs</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of closing open non-causal paths in Directed Acyclic Graphs?

<p>To properly identify the causal effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens if there are open non-causal paths in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?

<p>The causal effect remains unidentified</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), how is a back-door path closed?

<p>By conditioning on the variable at the start of the path</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How is the causal effect of D on Y identified in a DAG when there are two back-door paths?

<p>By only conditioning on one variable in each back-door path</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens when X1 and X2 are both conditioned on in a DAG with a non-causal path D → X1 ← X2 → Y?

<p>The path remains open</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Why is X1 considered a bad control in certain cases according to DAG analysis?

<p>Because X1 closes the back-door paths</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does regression of Y on D and X1 help in identifying causal effects according to DAG analysis?

<p>Only identifies the direct effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) in causal inference?

<p>To visualize the relationships between variables in a study</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does omitted variable bias impact the estimation of causal effects?

<p>It inflates the magnitude of the causal effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Why is identifying back-door paths important in causal inference?

<p>To eliminate confounding variables from affecting the causal effect estimation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In terms of causal effect identification, what does the counterfactual Y0 represent?

<p>The unobserved outcome of interest</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the concept of indirect effects relate to causal inference?

<p>Indirect effects represent the influence of mediators on a causal pathway</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main assumption about Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) mentioned in the text?

<p>All causal paths are present in the DAG.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What distinguishes the under-intervention regime from the pre-intervention regime in causal analysis?

<p>Values of variables are set by hypothetical interventions in the under-intervention regime.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Which probability distributions define the causal effects in Pearl’s variant of causal analysis?

<p>P [Y |do(D = 1)] and P [Y |do(D = 0)]</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does AT E represent in the context of causal analysis?

<p>Average Treatment Effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the do(·) operator impact causal analysis in relation to Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs)?

<p>It represents a hypothetical intervention.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the significance of under-intervention distributions in defining causal quantities?

<p>They define all causal effects.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary role of potential outcomes in Pearl’s variant of causal analysis?

<p>To represent well-defined causal states.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### 'Back-door paths' in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) are typically associated with:

<p>Common causes of the treatment and outcome variables.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### 'Omitted Variable Bias' refers to:

<p>A situation where treatment effects are overestimated due to confounding.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### 'Indirect effects' in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) refer to:

<p>The association between treatment and outcome mediated by intermediate variables.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of identifying and closing back-door paths in the context of causal inference?

<p>To establish a causal effect between treatment D and outcome Y by eliminating confounding variables.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the concept of counterfactuals relate to causal inference in Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs)?

<p>Counterfactuals represent what would have happened under different conditions, helping to quantify causal effects in DAGs.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main concern when there are open non-causal paths in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?

<p>Open non-causal paths introduce bias and make it challenging to accurately estimate the causal effect.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Why is X1 considered a bad control in certain cases according to DAG analysis?

<p>X1 is considered a bad control when it lies on the causal path from treatment D to outcome Y.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### In terms of causal effect identification, what does the counterfactual Y0 represent?

<p>Counterfactual Y0 represents the outcome Y under the scenario where treatment D is absent or not applied.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of identifying and closing back-door paths in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?

<p>To establish causal relationships between variables and identify the causal effect of a treatment on an outcome.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain the significance of controlling for confounders in causal inference using DAGs.

<p>Controlling for confounders helps in isolating the effect of the treatment on the outcome, ensuring that the observed association is not confounded by other variables.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the role of counterfactuals and potential outcomes in determining causal effects?

<p>Counterfactuals and potential outcomes allow researchers to compare what would have happened under different treatment conditions, helping to quantify causal effects.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the concept of average treatment effect (ATE) contribute to understanding causal relationships?

<p>ATE helps in quantifying the average difference in outcomes between treatment and control groups, providing insights into the causal impact of the treatment.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the observational problem related to causal inference, and how does it impact establishing causal effects?

<p>The observational problem arises when causal relationships are inferred from observational data without experimental manipulation, leading to potential biases and confounding.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain the difference between the observed outcome and the potential outcome in the context of counterfactuals and potential outcomes.

<p>The observed outcome is what is actually seen in the data, while the potential outcome is the outcome that would have been observed under a different treatment condition.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Define the Average Treatment Effect (ATE) and explain its significance in causal analysis.

<p>ATE is the difference between the average outcome if everyone received the treatment and the average outcome if no one received the treatment. It helps in understanding the overall impact of a treatment.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the selection effect in the context of individual causal effects, and how does it impact the interpretation of treatment effects?

<p>The selection effect occurs when individuals self-select into a treatment based on certain characteristics, leading to biased estimates of treatment effects. It can confound the true causal effect of the treatment.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain why random assignment is crucial in addressing selection bias when estimating treatment effects.

<p>Random assignment helps in making the selection bias zero, ensuring that treatment assignment is not based on confounding variables. This allows for a well-defined average potential impact.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the counterfactual Y0 represent the unobserved potential outcome in causal analysis?

<p>The counterfactual Y0 represents what would have happened to an individual if they were not exposed to the treatment. It serves as a benchmark for comparing the actual outcome with the potential outcome under a different treatment condition.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain how causal graphs help in illustrating and analyzing causal models.

<p>Causal graphs help in illustrating and analyzing causal models by depicting variables as nodes and direct causal effects as arrows.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Define the term 'path' in the context of Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG).

<p>A path in a DAG is an acyclic sequence of adjacent nodes, where causal paths show arrows pointing away from the cause and into the outcome.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How can open non-causal paths in a DAG impact the identification of causal effects?

<p>As long as there are open non-causal paths, the causal effect is not identified.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the significance of controlling for confounders in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?

<p>Controlling for confounders in a DAG involves holding certain variables fixed to close open non-causal paths.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain the importance of closing open non-causal paths in Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs).

<p>Closing open non-causal paths is essential for identifying the causal effect between the treatment and the outcome.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens when we condition on both X1 and X2 in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) with a non-causal path D → X1 ← X2 → Y?

<p>The non-causal path D → X1 ← X2 → Y is opened, and regression of Y on D and X1 does not identify the direct effect.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How is the causal effect of D on Y identified in a DAG when there are two back-door paths?

<p>The back-door paths are closed by conditioning on certain variables, allowing the causal effect of D on Y to be identified.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Why is X1 considered a bad control in certain cases according to DAG analysis?

<p>X1 is considered a bad control because conditioning on it can open non-causal paths and fail to identify the direct effect of D on Y.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What happens when we condition on X1 in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) with a back-door path D → X1 ← X2 → Y?

<p>The back-door path is closed by conditioning on X1, allowing the identification of the sum of direct and indirect effects.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the identification of the direct effect of D on Y differ in a DAG when X1 is a collider on the path D → X1 ← X2 → Y?

<p>Regression of Y on D identifies the sum of direct and indirect effects, as X1 being a collider closes the path.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain the concept of back-door paths in Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) and how they are blocked.

<p>Back-door paths are paths between variables that connect the treatment and outcome, and they are blocked by conditioning on variables that are descendants of the common causes but not part of the causal pathway.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Define the Average Treatment Effect (ATE) and explain how it is estimated in causal analysis.

<p>The Average Treatment Effect (ATE) is the average difference in outcomes between the treatment group and the control group. It is estimated by comparing the outcomes of the treated and control groups after accounting for potential confounders.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Describe the Selection effect in the context of causal analysis and its impact on estimating causal effects.

<p>The Selection effect refers to the bias introduced when the treatment assignment is related to the potential outcomes. It can lead to overestimation or underestimation of the true causal effect.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain the concept of Counterfactuals and Potential Outcomes in causal analysis.

<p>Counterfactuals refer to the unobserved outcome that would have occurred if a different treatment had been received. Potential Outcomes represent the different outcomes that could result from different treatment options.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Discuss the importance of identifying and estimating the Causal effect in observational studies.

<p>The Causal effect represents the impact of a treatment or exposure on the outcome of interest. Estimating the causal effect helps in making informed decisions about interventions and policies based on observational data.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the significance of counterfactuals in causal analysis?

<p>Counterfactuals help in understanding what would have happened under different conditions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does the concept of potential outcomes contribute to causal inference?

<p>Potential outcomes help in comparing the outcome under different treatment conditions.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What does the term 'Selection effect' refer to in causal analysis?

<p>Selection effect pertains to the differences in outcomes due to the selection of certain treatments or groups.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Define Average Treatment Effect (ATE) in the context of causal analysis.

<p>Average Treatment Effect (ATE) is the average difference in outcomes between the treatment group and the control group.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does observational problem hinder causal inference?

<p>Observational problem arises when treatment assignment is non-random, leading to biased estimates of causal effects.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain the term 'Causal effect' in the context of causal analysis.

<p>Causal effect refers to the impact of a treatment or intervention on the outcome of interest.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How is the identification of causal effects enhanced through randomized experiments?

<p>Randomized experiments help in establishing causal relationships by ensuring treatment assignment is not influenced by any confounding variables.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What role does matching play in causal analysis?

<p>Matching helps in creating comparable treatment and control groups by selecting similar units based on observed characteristics.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Explain the concept of instrumental variables in establishing causal effects.

<p>Instrumental variables help in dealing with endogeneity by providing a source of exogenous variation to identify causal effects.</p> Signup and view all the answers

### How does regression discontinuity aid in causal inference?

<p>Regression discontinuity allows for causal effects to be estimated based on the presence of a cutoff point.</p> Signup and view all the answers

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