Human Physiology Lec-5: Synaptic Transmission and Neural Integration
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Human Physiology Lec-5: Synaptic Transmission and Neural Integration

Explore the concept of synapse in human physiology, including its role at the junction of neurons, between neurons and target cells, and in the interface between cardiac or smooth muscle cells.

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@TransparentMedusa

Questions and Answers

What is the mechanism through which the presynaptic neuron may actively transport the neurotransmitter back into itself?

Re-uptake

What type of synapse occurs between a presynaptic axon terminal and a postsynaptic cell's dendrite?

Axodendritic synapse

What is the primary cause of the synaptic delay, which takes about 0.5-5 msec from the time of arrival of the action potential to a response in the postsynaptic cell?

Time it takes for calcium to trigger exocytosis

What type of response involves ionotropic receptors where the neurotransmitter binds to a channel-linked receptor?

<p>Fast response</p> Signup and view all the answers

What stops the influx of Ca++ within a few milliseconds when a series of action potentials arrives at the axon terminal?

<p>Closure of Ca++ channels</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the traditional usage of the term synapse in physiology?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of electrical synapses?

<p>Allow ions or secondary messengers to flow from one cell to another</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of synapse do most neurons use to communicate?

<p>Chemical synapses with neurotransmitters</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of synapse transmits signals between adjacent cardiac muscle cells or adjacent smooth muscle cells?

<p>Electrical synapses with gap junctions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of neurotransmitters at chemical synapses?

<p>Bind to receptors in the plasma membrane receiving the signal</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Neurotransmission Mechanisms

  • The presynaptic neuron can actively transport the neurotransmitter back into itself through a process called reuptake.

Synapse Types

  • A chemical synapse occurs between a presynaptic axon terminal and a postsynaptic cell's dendrite.

Synaptic Delay

  • The primary cause of the synaptic delay (0.5-5 msec) is the time it takes for the neurotransmitter to bind to the receptor and initiate a response in the postsynaptic cell.

Ionotropic Receptors

  • A fast response involves ionotropic receptors, where the neurotransmitter binds to a channel-linked receptor.

Calcium Regulation

  • The influx of Ca++ is stopped within a few milliseconds when a series of action potentials arrives at the axon terminal due to Ca++ channels being inactivated.

Synapse Definition

  • Traditionally, the term synapse in physiology refers to the functional connection between two neurons.

Electrical Synapses

  • The function of electrical synapses is to allow ions to flow directly from one cell to another, providing rapid communication.

Synapse Types

  • Most neurons use chemical synapses to communicate.

Gap Junctions

  • Gap junctions, also known as electrical synapses, transmit signals between adjacent cardiac muscle cells or adjacent smooth muscle cells.

Neurotransmitter Role

  • The role of neurotransmitters at chemical synapses is to transmit signals from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron.

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