Human Computer Interaction (HCI) Chapter 4

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What is a significant aspect of interaction design?

Understanding and choosing how the artifact affects people's work

What is the primary goal of a design exercise?

To change the situation for the better

What is implied by the concept of 'designing interventions'?

Intervening to change the situation as it is

What is a key aspect of the design process?

Involving several cycles of prototyping and evaluation

What is a simple definition of design?

Achieving goals within constraints

What is an important consideration in design?

The goals and purpose of the design

What is the main difference between a successful and an unsuccessful manager, according to the text?

Having a concrete organizational plan and defensible cost/benefit analyses

What is design, according to Carroll and Rosson (1985)?

A creative and unpredictable process

What is the fundamental rule of design for Human-Computer Interaction?

To understand both the human and the computer aspects

Why do HCI professionals often complain about being called in too late?

Because they are called in to fix usability problems after the system has been built

What is the common misconception about usability in companies, according to the text?

That it is equivalent to testing

What do designers need to understand in order to create a successful system, according to the text?

Both technical feasibility and the aesthetic sense of what attracts users

What is the primary goal of the first stage of the design process?

To establish what exactly is needed

What technique is used to observe users in HCI?

Videotaping people

What is the purpose of analysis in the design process?

To order the results of observation and interview

What is used to represent the situation as it is and the desired situation?

Scenarios, rich stories of interaction

What is the central stage of the design process?


What can be used to help with designing an interface?

Rules and guidelines

What is a key consideration when designing a wireless personal movie player?

The device's compatibility with existing video standards

What is the primary challenge in designing a product that meets all the desired goals and constraints?

Balancing competing goals and constraints

What is a potential concern when using an eye-mounted video display in a wireless personal movie player?

The user may not be able to show the movie to friends

What is a role that usability engineers and user-interface architects are increasingly taking on?

Managing organizational change

What may be a consequence of prioritizing one goal or constraint over another in product design?

The product may not meet all the desired goals

What is a potential constraint when designing a wireless personal movie player?

The cost of the device

What is the primary purpose of recording design choices?

To document the design process for future reference

What is the significance of iteration and prototyping in design?

It allows for evaluating and improving the design

What is the role of cognitive models and organizational issues in the design process?

They provide input for understanding communication and organizational issues

What is the final stage of the design process?

Implementation and deployment

What is the purpose of the three pillars of design?

To help user-interface architects turn good ideas into successful systems

What is the primary goal of ideation and creativity techniques in design?

To test the limits of the designers' creativity and abandon their assumptions

Study Notes

Design Process in HCI

  • Design is a crucial aspect of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) that involves understanding how people interact with technology and making things that affect how people work.
  • Interaction design encompasses not only the artifact produced but also manuals, tutorials, and online help systems.

What is Design?

  • A simple definition of design is achieving goals within constraints.
  • Goals: What is the purpose of the design? Who is it for? Why do they want it?
  • Constraints: What materials must be used? What standards must be adopted? What are the time and cost limitations?

Characteristics of Design

  • Design is inherently creative and unpredictable.
  • Design involves a process, not a state, and cannot be represented statically.
  • The design process is non-hierarchical, neither strictly bottom-up nor strictly top-down.
  • The process is radically transformational, involving the development of partial and interim solutions.

The Golden Rule of Design

  • For HCI, the obvious materials are the human and the computer.
  • Understand computers: limitations, capacities, tools, and platforms.
  • Understand people: psychological, social aspects, and human error.

The Design Process

  • The design process involves four main phases: Requirements, Analysis, Design, and Implementation and Deployment.
  • Requirements: Establish what is needed by understanding what is currently happening.
  • Analysis: Order the results of observation and interview to bring out key issues and communicate with later stages of design.
  • Design: Move from what is wanted to how to do it, using rules, guidelines, and design principles.
  • Implementation and Deployment: Create and deploy the design, involving writing code, making hardware, and writing documentation.

Design Process Phases

  • Requirements Analysis: Find out what is currently happening, using techniques such as interviewing, videotaping, and observing people.
  • Analysis: Use techniques such as task analysis, scenario-based design, and observation to bring out key issues.
  • Design: Use rules, guidelines, and design principles to help with the design, considering constraints and trade-offs.

Organizational Design to Support Usability

  • Usability engineers and user-interface architects must manage organizational change to support usability.
  • Record design choices in some way, using notations and methods to record the existing situation and design decisions.

The Three Pillars of Design

  • The three pillars of design can help user-interface architects turn good ideas into successful systems.

Explore the design process in Human Computer Interaction, including design methods, organizational support, design tools, and social impact analysis. Learn about design frameworks and legal issues in HCI.

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