High-resolution Computed Tomography in Influenza Patients
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High-resolution Computed Tomography in Influenza Patients

Learn about the characteristic findings on high-resolution computed tomography in severe cases of influenza. Understand the progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome and the clinical presentation of patients with severe hypoxemia.

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@NeatGrace

Questions and Answers

In addition to respiratory effects, influenza can have impacts on which of the following body systems?

Cardiac system

Which of the following is a significant complication of both seasonal and pandemic influenza?

Myocarditis

What was observed in a prospective study regarding adult flu patients without cardiac complaints?

Normal ECG findings

Which rare complication has been associated with influenza A infection?

<p>Guillain–Barré syndrome</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is mainly seen in children but can also occur in adults after influenza, accompanied by symptoms of painful walking or standing?

<p>Myositis</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are the majority of influenza cases diagnosed according to the text?

<p>By clinical manifestations</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common finding in high-resolution computed tomography of severe influenza cases?

<p>Peribronchovascular consolidation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common symptom that patients with severe influenza may present with?

<p>Progressive dyspnea</p> Signup and view all the answers

In severe cases, what can hypoxemia lead to, requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation?

<p>Respiratory failure</p> Signup and view all the answers

During the influenza pandemic of 1968–9, what bacterium showed a threefold increase in incidence for secondary pneumonia?

<p>Staphylococcus aureus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common etiologic bacterium associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia after seasonal influenza?

<p>Streptococcus pneumonia</p> Signup and view all the answers

How long can the improvement period last in patients with classic influenza before recurrence of symptoms may happen?

<p>Maximally 2 weeks</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main purpose of rapid influenza diagnostic tests?

<p>To detect influenza viral antigens and screen patients with suspected influenza</p> Signup and view all the answers

How long does it typically take to obtain results from rapid influenza diagnostic tests?

<p>Within 30 minutes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following statements about rapid influenza diagnostic tests is true?

<p>They have high specificity but varying sensitivity depending on the sample and patient</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which factor can affect the sensitivity of rapid influenza diagnostic tests?

<p>The age of the patient</p> Signup and view all the answers

When is the sensitivity of rapid influenza diagnostic tests likely to be higher?

<p>At the onset of the disease, when a higher viral load exists</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary limitation of rapid influenza diagnostic tests mentioned in the text?

<p>They cannot specify types of influenza A, such as H1N1 and H3N2</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which groups does the WHO recommend seasonal influenza vaccines for, even if they are not closely related to the predominant circulating influenza viruses each year?

<p>The above-mentioned groups</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which antiviral drugs are recommended for the prevention of influenza due to their established efficacy and low rates of resistance in comparison to adamantanes?

<p>Oseltamivir and zanamivir</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which individuals are the effective prevention targets for oseltamivir and zanamivir according to the text?

<p>Healthy individuals, persons at high risk of influenza complications, and those residing in long-term care facilities</p> Signup and view all the answers

What parameter should be considered when choosing a strategy of antiviral chemoprophylaxis according to the text?

<p>Preventing complications in patients at high risk and reducing antiviral drug resistance risk</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do some patients receive antiviral drugs instead of vaccines according to the text?

<p>Because they have not been immunized or are nonresponsive to vaccines</p> Signup and view all the answers

What has not yet been compared regarding oseltamivir and zanamivir according to the text?

<p>Their effectiveness in preventing influenza</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many doses of influenza vaccine are required for children aged between 6 months and 8 years during their first season of vaccination?

<p>2 doses at least 4 weeks apart</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main factor that determines the effectiveness of influenza vaccines?

<p>The antigenic drift from the vaccine strain</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), what was the estimated vaccine effectiveness for the northern hemisphere 2014–15 seasonal influenza vaccine?

<p>23%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the potential benefit of an influenza vaccine, even if it is not completely related to the predominant circulating virus?

<p>It can protect against several different influenza viruses and confer good protection</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which statement about influenza vaccines is true, according to the text?

<p>Influenza vaccines are safe and important for reducing severe disease in some high-risk populations</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the minimum time interval required between the two doses of influenza vaccine for children during their first season of vaccination?

<p>4 weeks</p> Signup and view all the answers

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