Hemolytic Anemias Overview
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Hemolytic Anemias Overview

Learn about the types and causes of hemolytic anemias, including immune and non-immune hemolytic anemias, their clinical manifestations, and diagnosis and treatment.

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Questions and Answers

What is the main difference between immune and non-immune hemolytic anemias?

The presence of immune response

What is a common complication of hemolytic anemia?


What is the purpose of the Coombs test?

To diagnose autoimmune hemolytic anemia

What is a characteristic of hereditary spherocytosis?

<p>Abnormalities not related to immune response</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a treatment option for idiopathic aplastic anemia?

<p>Blood transfusion and supportive care</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a type of autoimmune hemolytic anemia mentioned in the document?

<p>Methyldopa-induced immune hemolytic anemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a symptom of hemolytic anemia?

<p>Jaundice</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common diagnosis for hemolytic anemia?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Immune Hemolytic Anemias

  • Alloimmune (isoimmune) and autoimmune types, including AIHA, drug-induced hemolysis, and Rh incompatibility

Non-Immune Hemolytic Anemias

  • Abnormalities not related to immune response, including hereditary spherocytosis and hemoglobinopathies

Clinical Manifestations

  • Anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly, and hemolysis
  • Complications like aplastic anemia and thrombosis

Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Coombs test, blood film analysis, and specific treatments for each type
  • Addressing underlying causes, supportive care, and specific therapies for each condition

Common Diseases Mentioned

  • Cold agglutinin disease (IgM)
  • Evans' syndrome
  • Ancylostoma (hookworm) causing Iron Deficiency Anemia
  • Diphyllobothrium latum leading to Megaloblastic Anemia
  • Malaria causing hemolytic anemia
  • Fanconi syndrome
  • Dyskeratosis congenita
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
  • Methyldopa-induced immune hemolytic anemia

Treatment Options for Idiopathic Aplastic Anemia

  • First-Line Treatment: Blood transfusion and supportive care, immunosuppressive therapy with large doses of steroids
  • Second-Line Treatment: Another immunosuppressive agent as a second-line therapy, plasmapheresis, IV gamma globulin, and rituximab, splenectomy in some cases
  • Other Options: Bone marrow transplantation as the main treatment for idiopathic aplastic anemia, therapeutic doses of antibiotics and blood transfusions as needed

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

  • Warm Antibody AIHA: Due to warm Abs IgG (C3d)
  • Cold Agglutinin Disease: IgM antibodies causing hemolysis
  • Drug-Induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Triggered by medications like methyldopa
  • Other Types: Alloimmune (isoimmune) hemolytic anemia, Rh incompatibility-related hemolytic anemia

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