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2 PRELIM (HAIR PRODUCTS)

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those that HELP TO CONTROL THE PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR of the hair so that it can be maintained in a CONTROLLED AND DESIRABLE MANNER

Hair products

Hair is composed primarily of how many % OF PROTEINS

88%

Keratin

polypeptide chains

proteins is a SOURCE of what?

amino acids

two types of HAIR PIGMENTS

Eumelanin Pheomelanin

Both of these PIGMENTS ARE MELANIN TYPE, produced inside the hair follicle and packed into granules found in the fibers.

Hair color

the dominant pigment in BROWN HAIR AND BLACK HAIR

Eumelanin

dominant in RED HAIR

Pheomelanin

why does FEMALE HAIR GROWS FASTER THAN MALE hair due to what?

estrogen

2 Types of hair

Vellus hair Terminal hair

SHORT, fine, downy, unpigmented hair on body

Vellus hair

LONG, thick, pigmented hair found on scalp, legs, arms and body

Terminal hair

in the shaft what is NOT AFFECTED when hair is treated

Medulla

located in the middle. MOST AFFECTED when hair is treated.

The cortex

OUTER PART of the shaft

The cuticle

Three main layers of hair shaft:

◦ Cuticle ◦ Cortex ◦ medulla

Is in the skin and EXTENDS DOWN TO THE DEEPER LAYERS of the skin.

It is surrounded by the hair follicle (a sheath of skin and connective tissue), which is also connected to a sebaceous gland.

Each hair follicle is attached to a tiny muscle (arrector pili) that can make the hair stand up

The root

Consists of a SINGLE LAYER OF TRANSPARENT, scale-like cells that overlap like shingles on a roof.

Cuticle

A fibrous protein core formed by ELONGATED CELLS CONTAINING MELANIN PIGMENT

Cortex

The innermost layer also referred to as the PITH(CORE)of the hair and composed of round cells

Medulla

HAIR LIFE CYCLE THAT Active growth period is 2-5 years BEFOREreplacement

Active growth phase (ANAGEN)

HAIR LIFE SCYCLE that Lasts ONE OR TWO WEEKS and the hair follicle shrink about 80%.

Transition phase (CATAGEN)

HAIR LIFE CYCLE: After 5 or 6 weeks, the dermal papilla reconnects to the base of the hair follicle and bloodstream.

The hair reenters the active-growth phase, and NEW HAIR BEGINS TO FORM

Resting phase (TELOGEN)

also known as ANAGEN

Active growth phase

also known as CATAGEN

Transition phase

also known as TELOGEN

Resting phase

This is part of the resting phase where the SHEDS AND A NEW HAIR CONTINUE TO GROW. Approximately 50-150 hairs can fall out considered to be normal hair shedding.

Exogen (New hair phase)

◦ when the hair follicle constricts, MAKING IT HARDER TO GROW . ◦ The hair starts growing slower and not that long. ◦ Each cycle, becomes weaker, slower and gets weaker.

Miniaturisation

Encourages collagen production that is RESPOSIBLE FOR THICKENING OF HAIR. ◦ can be effective in TREATING MALE PATTERN BALDNESS, both in preventing hair loss and promoting new hair growth.

PRP-Platelet rich plasma

The word SHAMPOO IS DERIVED from what?

Hindustani champo

Hair care product that is USED FOR THE REMOVAL OF OILS, DIRT, SKIN PARTICLESM DANDRUFF, environmental pollutants, and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair.

Shampoo

Ideal properties of shampoo

◦ Smooth and shiny ◦ Produce foam ◦ No irritation ◦ Removes dirt completely ◦ Impart fragrance ◦ Readily removed

Functions of shampoo

◦ Completely removes dirt ◦ Protects the hair ◦ Cleaning of hair ◦ Soothe the scalp ◦ Nourishment of hair ◦ Treating dandruff, lice or other scalp problems

Classification of shampoo ◦ Based on appearance:

◦ Powder shampoo ◦ Liquid shampoo or solid creams ◦ Cream shampoo ◦ Oil shampoo ◦ miscellaneous: anti-dandruff, medicated shampoo

Classification of shampoo

◦ Based on use: ◦ Conditioning shampoo ◦ Antidandruff shampoo ◦ Baby shampoo ◦ Balancing ◦ Clarifying

is a product to ABSORT THE DIRT, oil, and grease of your scalp WITHOUT WASHING IT.

Dry shampoo

They are usually made by USING DETERGENT OF LOW CLOUD POINT Alkanolamides can also be used in these preparations.

Clear Liquid shampoo

are called LOTION SHAMPOOS which are MODIFICATIONS of clear liquid shampoos

Liquid cream shampoo

have a PASTE LIKE CONSISTENCY and are packed in a collapsible tube; They find great use in hair salons

Cream shampoo

contain MEDICINAL AGENTS. These agents treat the disorders of the scalp or hair.

Medicated shampoo

give 3 examples of medicated shampoos

Anti-lice shampoo, Anti-dandruff shampoo, Anti-baldness shampoo

◦ Initially they clean the hair (and scalp) and KEEP THEM SMOOTH AND LUTRUOS condition. ◦ They also prevent the sticking of hairs.

Conditioning shampoo

to TREAT DANDRUFFand a certain scalp infection (seborrheic dermatitis).

Anti-dandruff shampoo

products intended to cleanse the hair of infants and children under the age of three; ADVERTIZED AS TEAR - FREE PRODUCTS

Baby shampoo

Performs on all hair types and delivers results that last; formulated to maintain the PERFECT HARMONY BETWEEN CLEANSING AND NOURISHING.

Balancing shampoo

a deep cleanser that uses heavier surfactants—the soap-like ingredients—than regular shampoos to eliminate grease, product residue, and impurities from your scalp.

Clarifying shampoo

How do I know if the product is a clarifying shampoo?

Sulfates, salicylic acid, and tea tree oil

3 Composition of shampoo

Water; Surfactants; Thickening agents

typically CONSIST OF AN AQUEOUS EMULSION OF SEVERAL SURFACTANTS, at least one of which will have strong detergent properties, and various additives to enhance cleansing performance or improve sensory attributes, one or more preservatives, and fragrance

Formulation

USED FOR RETEXTURING THE HAIR; Products that deals with specific problems of the hair.

Hair tonic

PURPOSE: cure, reduce and to restrain some abnormalities in the function of the scalp

Medicated products

Viscous liquid that is applied to the hair and are usually USED AFTER WASHING THE HAIR WITH SHAMPOO

Conditioners

GIVE 2 Purpose of hair conditioners

Restoring moisture; Hair should be manageable

GIVE AT LEAST 2 Functions of hair conditioner

Non-irritant; Smooth and soften the hair

3 main types of conditioners

Moisturizer Re-constructers Detanglers

ORGANIC SOLVENT concentrated with HUMECTANT may NOT contain a protein

Moisturizer

Contains proteins for hydrolyzation; Human hair keratin protein has a low molecular weight

Re-constructers

ACIDIFIERS AND HAVE A LOW pH; close the cuticle of the hair, which causes tangles

Detanglers

are the most common type of conditioner, worked through the ends of your hair, LEFT IN FOR A FEW MINUTES, AND RINSED OUT.

Rinse-out conditioner

are GREAT FOR SMOOTHENING AND DE-TANGLING; These conditioners are light-weight, and can be used as a styling product to get your tresses silky and glossy

Leave-on conditioner

Give at least 5 Composition of conditioners

Surfactants; Oily materials; Glossers; Humectant; Thickeners

Study Notes

Hair Structure and Composition

  • Hair is composed primarily of 80-90% proteins
  • Keratin is the main protein found in hair
  • Keratin is a source of strength, elasticity, and texture

Hair Pigments

  • Two types of hair pigments: eumelanin and pheomelanin
  • Both pigments are melanin type, produced inside the hair follicle and packed into granules found in the fibers
  • Eumelanin is the dominant pigment in brown and black hair
  • Pheomelanin is the dominant pigment in red hair

Hair Growth and Life Cycle

  • Female hair grows faster than male hair due to hormonal differences
  • There are two types of hair: vellus hair (short, fine, downy, and unpigmented) and terminal hair (long, thick, and pigmented)
  • The innermost layer of the hair shaft is the medulla (core) and is composed of round cells
  • Hair life cycle consists of three phases: anagen (active growth phase, lasts 2-5 years), catagen (transitional phase, lasts 1-2 weeks), and telogen (resting phase, lasts 3-4 months)
  • During the telogen phase, the hair follicle shrinks, and the hair starts growing slower and not as long

Shampoo

  • Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, and environmental pollutants
  • Ideal properties of shampoo include cleansing, foaming, and conditioning
  • Functions of shampoo include cleaning, moisturizing, and protecting the hair
  • Classification of shampoo can be based on appearance, pH level, and composition
  • Examples of medicated shampoos include those that treat dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis

Conditioners

  • Purpose of hair conditioners is to retexture the hair, cure, reduce, and restrain some abnormalities in the function of the scalp
  • Functions of hair conditioners include moisturizing, nourishing, and protecting the hair
  • There are three main types of conditioners: leave-in, rinse-out, and deep conditioning
  • Composition of conditioners includes surfactants, humectants, proteins, and acidifiers
  • Examples of conditioners include moisturizing, nourishing, and leave-in conditioners

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