Gestational Hypertension and Blood Components in Pregnancy

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38 Questions

During pregnancy, what happens to the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter?

It decreases

What causes the gums to become hyperemic, swollen, and friable during pregnancy?

Increased estrogen levels

What change occurs in the saliva produced in the mouth during pregnancy?

It becomes more acidic

What is the term for the excessive salivation that some women experience during pregnancy?

Ptyalism

How is the motility of the gastrointestinal system affected during pregnancy?

Motility decreases

What is the term for displacement of the intra-abdominal portion of the esophagus into the thorax during pregnancy?

Hiatal hernia

What causes some women to get temporary relief from excessive salivation by gum chewing or sucking on hard candies?

Decreased swallowing reflex

What leads to the condition of gastroesophageal reflux disease during pregnancy?

Decreased tone of lower esophageal sphincter

What is the primary role of prostaglandins during pregnancy?

Facilitating uterine contractions and increasing myometrial sensitivity to oxytocin

Which hormone acts as an antagonist against insulin after the first trimester of pregnancy?

hPL

What is the function of the placenta during pregnancy?

Acting as an endocrine gland and secreting hormones

Which hormone is believed to be involved in softening the cervix and initiating/maintaining labor?

Prostaglandins

What hormone is theorized to increase myometrial sensitivity to oxytocin during pregnancy?

Relaxin

Which hormones are thought to oppose insulin during pregnancy?

hPL, estrogen, and progesterone

What is the primary role of cortisol during the last half of pregnancy?

Acting against insulin

Which hormone is capable of synthesizing enzymes and proteins during pregnancy?

Placental lactogen (hPL)

What is the reason for the increase in dental plaque, calculus, and debris deposits during pregnancy?

Vascular permeability and tissue edema

What contributes to constipation during pregnancy?

Decreased activity level and decreased peristalsis

What is a common problem for pregnant women caused by the slowed gastric emptying combined with relaxation of the cardiac sphincter?

Heartburn

What contributes to the formation of hemorrhoids during pregnancy?

Increased venous pressure and gravid uterus pressure

What contributes to acid indigestion or heartburn (pyrosis) in pregnant women?

Delayed gastric emptying and decreased peristalsis

What is the reason for the decline in blood pressure during pregnancy?

Increased peripheral vasodilation caused by progesterone

What causes the increase in cardiac output during pregnancy?

Increased stroke volume

What is the clinical definition of gestational hypertension?

Systolic of 140 mm Hg or higher and/or diastolic of 90 mm Hg or higher after 20 weeks’ gestation

What causes the physiologic anemia of pregnancy?

Increase in plasma volume exceeding the increase in RBC production

What contributes to the hypercoagulable state during pregnancy?

Venous stasis secondary to venous pooling

What happens to the respiratory system during pregnancy?

Increased tidal volume and maternal hyperventilation

What influences the vascularity of the respiratory tract during pregnancy?

Increased sensitivity to allergens

What structural alterations take place in the respiratory system during pregnancy?

Temporary changes that revert back to prepregnant state

What causes the predominant structural change in the renal system during pregnancy?

Hormonal influences of estrogen and progesterone

Why do the kidneys work harder throughout pregnancy?

Increased intravascular and extracellular volume

What is responsible for the increase in urine flow and volume during pregnancy?

Increased levels of estrogen and progesterone

What contributes to the characteristic 'waddle' gait that pregnant women demonstrate as they near term?

Relaxation and increased mobility of joints due to hormones

What is responsible for the development of the 'mask of pregnancy' or facial melasma in pregnant women?

Increased levels of estrogen and progesterone

What contributes to the postural changes of pregnancy such as an increased swayback and an upper spine extension?

Increased weight gain accentuating lumbar and dorsal curves

Which factor is responsible for most skin changes in pregnancy?

Increased levels of estrogen and progesterone

What contributes to the development of striae gravidarum or stretch marks in pregnant women?

Increased levels of estrogen and progesterone

What is responsible for the enlargement of the kidneys during pregnancy?

Increased blood flow to the kidneys

Test your knowledge about gestational hypertension and the changes in blood components during pregnancy. This quiz covers the clinical diagnosis of gestational hypertension and the increase in red blood cells necessary for transporting additional oxygen during pregnancy.

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