Generations of Programming Language at Dijlah University

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Machine language is a high-level programming language.


Assembly language is the human-readable notation for the machine language.


A second-generation programming language uses symbolic instruction codes that are random sequences of characters.


Procedural language is a third generation of programming language that uses English-like words to write instructions.


A high-level programming language must be translated into machine language by an interpreter only.


High-level programming languages are less complex and easier to read than low-level programming languages.


Fourth generation programming languages are also known as non-procedural languages.


Fifth generation programming languages provide a visual or graphical interface called a command-line interface for creating source codes.


Python is an example of a fifth-generation programming language.


A very high-level programming language is often called a goal-oriented programming language because it is usually limited to a very specific application.


Study Notes

Generations of Programming Languages

Low-Level vs High-Level Language

  • A low-level programming language provides little abstraction from the computer's microprocessor
  • A high-level programming language is more abstract, easier to use, and portable across platforms

First Generation (1GL)

  • Machine language
  • Set of instructions and data executed directly by the computer's central processing unit
  • Statements written in binary code, with each statement corresponding to one machine action

Second Generation (2GL)

  • Assembly language
  • Human-readable notation for machine language, used to control specific computer operations
  • Programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes (mnemonics)
  • An assembler translates assembly language into machine language

Third Generation (3GL)

  • Procedural language
  • Uses English-like words to write instructions
  • High-level language making complex programming simpler and easier to read, write, and maintain
  • Examples: PASCAL, FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, C, and C++
  • Programs must be translated into machine language by a compiler or interpreter

Fourth Generation (4GL)

  • Non-procedural language
  • Enables users to access data in a database
  • Often referred to as goal-oriented programming language due to specific application
  • Examples: MS SQL, NOMAD, and FOCUS

Fifth Generation (5GL)

  • Visual programming language
  • Provides a visual or graphical interface for creating source codes
  • Allows people to interact with computers without specialized knowledge
  • Examples: Python
  • Enables voice recognition systems to convert spoken sounds into written words

Learn about the evolution of programming languages in computer science, from low-level to high-level languages. Explore the characteristics of first-generation programming languages and their abstraction levels. Get insights into machine language and its role in early programming.

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