Dijlah University College Mechanical Power: Solar Cells and Photovoltaic Array

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What is a common application of stand-alone systems?

Remote mountain cabins and holiday homes

What is the primary purpose of a charge controller in a stand-alone PV system?

To protect the batteries and achieve higher availability

Why is energy storage necessary in a stand-alone PV system?

Because the energy generated is not usually required at the same time

What type of batteries are typically used in stand-alone PV systems?

Rechargeable batteries

What is another application of stand-alone systems?

Telephones and communication stations

What is the main component that protects the batteries in a stand-alone PV system?

Charge controller

What happens to the output voltage in a PV system when modules are connected in series?

It increases

In the analogy between a hydraulic system and an electrical system, what is the role of current in the electrical system?

Flow

When PV modules are connected in parallel in a system, what is the main outcome in terms of current?

It increases

What aspect of the electrical system does voltage represent in the hydraulic system analogy?

Pressure

Why does connecting PV modules in series lead to a higher output voltage?

By summing the voltages of each module

What impact does connecting modules in parallel have on the total current in a PV system?

Increases the total current

What is a common component in a grid-connected PV system that is not typically found in a stand-alone system?

Meter cupboard

Which component in a stand-alone PV system regulates the flow of power from the PV modules to the battery?

Charge controller

In a grid-connected PV system, what is the purpose of the PV array combiner/junction box?

Protective equipment

What is the primary function of the battery or battery bank in a stand-alone PV system?

Store energy

Which component of a grid-connected PV system is responsible for converting DC power from the PV array into AC power for use in the home?

Inverter

What is the main purpose of having multiple PV modules connected in series or parallel in both stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems?

Increase power output

What is the primary function of solar cells?

To convert solar energy directly into electricity

What type of materials are commonly used in solar cells?

Semiconductor materials such as silicon, gallium arsenide, and cadmium telluride

What is the energy conversion process in solar cells?

One-step conversion from light energy to electrical energy

What type of electricity do solar cells produce?

Direct current (DC) electricity

What is the purpose of an inverter in a solar panel system?

To convert DC electricity to AC electricity

What is the purpose of batteries in a solar panel system?

To store electrical energy for nighttime and cloudy days

What does FF represent in the context of solar cells?

The fill factor

How is the solar cell temperature (Tc) calculated in the given scenario?

34 + 0.7 x (43-20)/0.8

What does the manufacturer-rated Pmax of a solar module represent?

The maximum power point under standard conditions

How is the maximum power point (Pmax) calculated in the given scenario?

2.1 x 18.1 x 0.75

What percentage of the nominal rating will the module operate at if the Pmax is around 62% of the manufacturer's value?

28.5%

In a PV array, why are solar modules electrically connected in series or parallel?

To increase the open-circuit voltage

This quiz covers Lecture 13 on Solar Cells and Photovoltaic Array in the course 'Mechanical Power (Refrigeration and Air Conditioning) Technical Engineering' at Dijlah University College. Topics include the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity using photovoltaic effect and different semiconductor materials used in solar cells.

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