## 31 Questions

What is the gravitational force of attraction between the earth and a 70.0 kg boy?

6.7 x 10^9 N

What type of oscillation is observed when an object moves repeatedly at a given amount of time?

Simple harmonic oscillation

What type of oscillation causes the amplitude to gradually decrease to zero?

Damped oscillation

In which condition does the damping of an oscillator cause it to return to equilibrium with the amplitude gradually decreasing to zero?

Over-damped condition

What is a disturbance in a medium that carries energy without particles being moved?

Mechanical wave

In which type of oscillation are damped oscillators further affected by an externally applied force?

Driven harmonic oscillation

Which type of wave is capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum?

Transverse wave

What is the defining characteristic of a longitudinal wave?

Particle motion is parallel to wave motion

Which of the following is an example of a transverse wave?

Radio waves

What is the frequency of a wave if it completes 5 cycles in 2 seconds?

$5$ Hertz

What is the wavelength of a wave if its frequency is $100$ Hertz and its speed is $200$ m/s?

$0.02$ m

What is beat interference related to?

The frequency of the wave

What does constructive superposition in waves result in?

Large resultant amplitude

Which characteristic defines a sine wave cycle?

The time it takes to complete one cycle

Which characteristic defines the period of a wave?

The time it takes to complete one cycle

What is the formula to calculate the gravitational force of attraction between two objects?

$F = \frac{Gm_{1}m_{2}}{r^2}$

What type of wave is capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum?

Longitudinal wave

What does 'damped oscillations' refer to?

Gradual decrease in amplitude over time

What is the defining characteristic of a transverse wave?

Particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction of the wave

In which condition does damping cause an oscillator to return as quickly as possible to its equilibrium position without oscillating back and forth about this position?

Critically damped condition

What is the period of a wave related to?

Frequency and amplitude

What type of wave requires a medium for propagation?

Mechanical wave

Which characteristic defines the period of a wave?

Time it takes to complete one cycle

In which type of oscillation are damped oscillators further affected by an externally applied force?

Superposition

What is the number of cycles in a second known as?

Frequency

What does beat interference equal to?

The absolute value of the difference in frequency of two waves

What is the defining characteristic of a transverse wave?

Particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction that the wave moves

What is the complete event in a sine wave starting with a rise from zero energy to a maximum amplitude and then its return to zero called?

Cycle

Which of the following is an example of a mechanical wave?

Sound wave

What is the speed at which a wave travels related to?

Wavelength, frequency, and period by the equation

What type of oscillation causes the amplitude to gradually decrease to zero?

Damped oscillation

## Study Notes

### Gravitational Force

- The gravitational force of attraction between the earth and a 70.0 kg boy can be calculated using the formula for gravitational force.

### Oscillations

- Periodic motion that repeats at a given amount of time is an example of oscillation.
- Damped oscillation causes the amplitude to gradually decrease to zero.
- When damping occurs in an oscillator, it returns to equilibrium with the amplitude gradually decreasing to zero, due to the presence of an external force.
- Forced oscillation is a type of oscillation where damped oscillators are further affected by an externally applied force.

### Waves

- A wave is a disturbance in a medium that carries energy without particles being moved.
- Electromagnetic waves are capable of transmitting their energy through a vacuum.
- The defining characteristic of a longitudinal wave is that the particles vibrate back and forth along the direction of the wave.
- A light wave is an example of a transverse wave.
- The frequency of a wave is the number of cycles per second, and can be calculated by dividing the number of cycles by the time.
- The wavelength of a wave can be calculated using the formula: wavelength = speed / frequency.

### Wave Properties

- Beat interference is related to the difference in frequency between two waves.
- Constructive superposition in waves results in an increase in amplitude.
- A sine wave cycle is defined by its amplitude, frequency, and wavelength.
- The period of a wave is the time taken to complete one cycle, and is related to the frequency.

### Gravitational Force Formula

- The formula to calculate the gravitational force of attraction between two objects is: F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2.

### Types of Waves

- Electromagnetic waves are capable of transmitting their energy through a vacuum.
- Damped oscillations refer to the gradual decrease in amplitude of an oscillation.
- The defining characteristic of a transverse wave is that the particles vibrate perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
- Critical damping occurs when an oscillator returns as quickly as possible to its equilibrium position without oscillating back and forth about this position.
- The period of a wave is related to the time taken to complete one cycle.
- Mechanical waves require a medium for propagation.
- The frequency of a wave is the number of cycles per second, and is measured in Hertz.

### Other

- One cycle of a sine wave, starting with a rise from zero energy to a maximum amplitude and then its return to zero, is called a cycle.
- A water wave is an example of a mechanical wave.
- The speed of a wave is related to the distance traveled by the wave per unit time.
- Damped oscillation causes the amplitude to gradually decrease to zero.

This review covers topics A and B of General Physics 1, including calculations related to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and the concept of oscillatory motion and waves.

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