# General Physics 1 Review: Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Simple Harmonic Oscillation

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## 31 Questions

6.7 x 10^9 N

### What type of oscillation is observed when an object moves repeatedly at a given amount of time?

Simple harmonic oscillation

### What type of oscillation causes the amplitude to gradually decrease to zero?

Damped oscillation

### In which condition does the damping of an oscillator cause it to return to equilibrium with the amplitude gradually decreasing to zero?

Over-damped condition

Mechanical wave

### In which type of oscillation are damped oscillators further affected by an externally applied force?

Driven harmonic oscillation

Transverse wave

### What is the defining characteristic of a longitudinal wave?

Particle motion is parallel to wave motion

### What is the frequency of a wave if it completes 5 cycles in 2 seconds?

$5$ Hertz

### What is the wavelength of a wave if its frequency is $100$ Hertz and its speed is $200$ m/s?

$0.02$ m

### What is beat interference related to?

The frequency of the wave

### What does constructive superposition in waves result in?

Large resultant amplitude

### Which characteristic defines a sine wave cycle?

The time it takes to complete one cycle

### Which characteristic defines the period of a wave?

The time it takes to complete one cycle

### What is the formula to calculate the gravitational force of attraction between two objects?

$F = \frac{Gm_{1}m_{2}}{r^2}$

### What type of wave is capable of transmitting its energy through a vacuum?

Longitudinal wave

### What does 'damped oscillations' refer to?

Gradual decrease in amplitude over time

### What is the defining characteristic of a transverse wave?

Particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction of the wave

### In which condition does damping cause an oscillator to return as quickly as possible to its equilibrium position without oscillating back and forth about this position?

Critically damped condition

### What is the period of a wave related to?

Frequency and amplitude

Mechanical wave

### Which characteristic defines the period of a wave?

Time it takes to complete one cycle

Superposition

Frequency

### What does beat interference equal to?

The absolute value of the difference in frequency of two waves

### What is the defining characteristic of a transverse wave?

Particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction that the wave moves

Cycle

Sound wave

### What is the speed at which a wave travels related to?

Wavelength, frequency, and period by the equation

### What type of oscillation causes the amplitude to gradually decrease to zero?

Damped oscillation

## Study Notes

### Gravitational Force

• The gravitational force of attraction between the earth and a 70.0 kg boy can be calculated using the formula for gravitational force.

### Oscillations

• Periodic motion that repeats at a given amount of time is an example of oscillation.
• Damped oscillation causes the amplitude to gradually decrease to zero.
• When damping occurs in an oscillator, it returns to equilibrium with the amplitude gradually decreasing to zero, due to the presence of an external force.
• Forced oscillation is a type of oscillation where damped oscillators are further affected by an externally applied force.

### Waves

• A wave is a disturbance in a medium that carries energy without particles being moved.
• Electromagnetic waves are capable of transmitting their energy through a vacuum.
• The defining characteristic of a longitudinal wave is that the particles vibrate back and forth along the direction of the wave.
• A light wave is an example of a transverse wave.
• The frequency of a wave is the number of cycles per second, and can be calculated by dividing the number of cycles by the time.
• The wavelength of a wave can be calculated using the formula: wavelength = speed / frequency.

### Wave Properties

• Beat interference is related to the difference in frequency between two waves.
• Constructive superposition in waves results in an increase in amplitude.
• A sine wave cycle is defined by its amplitude, frequency, and wavelength.
• The period of a wave is the time taken to complete one cycle, and is related to the frequency.

### Gravitational Force Formula

• The formula to calculate the gravitational force of attraction between two objects is: F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2.

### Types of Waves

• Electromagnetic waves are capable of transmitting their energy through a vacuum.
• Damped oscillations refer to the gradual decrease in amplitude of an oscillation.
• The defining characteristic of a transverse wave is that the particles vibrate perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
• Critical damping occurs when an oscillator returns as quickly as possible to its equilibrium position without oscillating back and forth about this position.
• The period of a wave is related to the time taken to complete one cycle.
• Mechanical waves require a medium for propagation.
• The frequency of a wave is the number of cycles per second, and is measured in Hertz.

### Other

• One cycle of a sine wave, starting with a rise from zero energy to a maximum amplitude and then its return to zero, is called a cycle.
• A water wave is an example of a mechanical wave.
• The speed of a wave is related to the distance traveled by the wave per unit time.
• Damped oscillation causes the amplitude to gradually decrease to zero.

This review covers topics A and B of General Physics 1, including calculations related to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and the concept of oscillatory motion and waves.

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