# Freezing Point Depression and Colligative Properties Quiz

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## 12 Questions

### What is responsible for the freezing point depression observed in solutions?

Introduction of solute molecules to a solvent

### Which property is directly proportional to the molality of the solute in a solution?

Freezing point depression

### What type of substances are nonelectrolytes?

Substances with only molecules and no ions

### In terms of composition, what characterizes strong electrolytes?

Composed mostly of ionic compounds

### When can it be assumed that the substance being worked with is a nonelectrolyte?

When it is uniform and free of ions

### For problems related to freezing point depression and boiling point elevation, what should be kept an eye out for?

Presence of ions in the solution

### Which property undergoes changes due to the addition of solutes to a solvent?

Melting and boiling point

### What is the condition for a solute to exert any change on colligative properties?

Contributing to the vapor pressure of the solution

Entropy

freezing point

### What does the chemical potential of a solvent indicate?

Its molar Gibbs energy contribution to a mixture

It decreases

## Study Notes

### Freezing Point Depression

• Freezing point depression is a colligative property observed in solutions that results from the introduction of solute molecules to a solvent.
• The freezing points of solutions are all lower than that of the pure solvent.
• The freezing point depression is directly proportional to the molality of the solute.
• The freezing point depression equation is: ΔT_f = T_f(solvent) - T_f(solution) = K_f × m
• Where ΔT_f is the freezing point depression, T_f(solvent) is the freezing point of the solvent, T_f(solution) is the freezing point of the solution, K_f is the freezing point depression constant, and m is the molality.

### Types of Solutes

• Nonelectrolytes are substances with no ions, only molecules.
• Strong electrolytes are composed mostly of ionic compounds and essentially all soluble ionic compounds form electrolytes.

### Solving Problems

• If the substance is uniform and not ionic, it can be assumed to be a nonelectrolyte and the formulas can be used to solve problems.
• These equations work for both volatile and nonvolatile solutions.
• The vapor pressure does not affect the change in temperature.

### Colligative Properties

• Adding solutes to an ideal solution results in a positive ΔS, an increase in entropy.
• The properties that undergo changes due to the addition of solutes to a solvent are known as colligative properties.
• Colligative properties are dependent on the number of solutes added, not on their identity.
• Examples of colligative properties are boiling point and freezing point.

### Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression

• The boiling point and freezing point of a pure solvent can be changed when added to a solution.
• The freezing point of the pure solvent may become lower, and the boiling point may become higher.
• The extent to which these changes occur can be found using the formulas: ΔT_f = -K_f × m and ΔT_b = K_b × m.

### Conditions for Colligative Properties

• The solute must fulfill two conditions to exert a change on colligative properties: it must not contribute to the vapor pressure of the solution, and it must remain suspended in the solution even during phase changes.

### Chemical Potential

• The chemical potential of the solvent is lower when solutes are added.
• Chemical potential is the molar Gibb's energy that one mole of solvent is able to contribute to a mixture.
• The higher the chemical potential of a solvent is, the more it is able to drive the reaction forward.

Test your knowledge on freezing point depression, a colligative property observed in solutions due to the introduction of solute molecules. Understand the relationship between freezing point depression and solute molality in solutions.

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