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Free Flowing Solids Dosage Form Quiz +2

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231 Questions

When do cohesive effects grow larger?

When particles become smaller

What is a common problem in direct compression applications?

Cohesive effects

What ingredient typically shows a tendency to agglomerate?

The API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient)

Which of the following is one mechanisms drive the dynamic formation of agglomerates in a blender except:

Chemical reactions

What is another mechanism that can lead to the development of solid or capillary bridges between ingredients?

Moisture transfer

Which type of materials can sequester moisture from other ingredients?

Hygroscopic materials

What ingredient can be used to soften low melting point ingredients in the blender?

Magnesium Stearate

which of the following is correct type of solids are considered free flowing ?

A+B

Which equipment is suitable for cohesive solids?

B+C

Batch type(small scale): Ribbon blender, Sigma blender, Planetary paddle, Fluidized mixer

True

Continuous type(large scale): barrel type, zigzag type

True

What is the common range of rotation speed for a tumbler mixer?

30-100 rpm

Which of the following equipments is used for free flowing solids dosage form?

Tumblers or cylindrical blenders with NO mixing blade (i.e. no shear force)

What affects the efficiency of a tumbler mixer?

The speed of rotation

What is the recommended speed of rotation for optimal mixing?

Critical and optimum rotation

What does a rapid rotation speed in a tumbler mixer result in?

More dusting and segregation

Which of the following is correct a slow rotation speed in a tumbler mixer result in?

All of the above

Tumblers : Mixing is done by tumbling motion, which is emphasized by feature of the shape of the container.

True

What material is a V cone blender made of?

A+B

What is the shape of a V cone blender?

V

Approximately what percentage of the total volume is loaded with material in a twin shell blender?

50-60%

What is the rotation speed of small models (20 kg) of a twin shell blender?

35 rpm

What is the rotation speed of large models (1 ton) of a twin shell blender?

15 rpm

What type of motion does the material undergo as the blender rotates?

Tumbling motion

What happens when the V shape of the blender is reversed?

A+C

What is a double cone blender?

A blender with two cones on a rotating shaft.

What is the recommended range of rotation speed for a double cone blender?

30-100 rpm

Which type of motion is responsible for mixing in a double cone blender?

Tumbling motion

What type of materials is a double cone blender usually efficient for mixing?

Powders of different densities

Which of the following is true about a double cone blender?

Material is loaded and emptying is done through different ports

What is the importance of the rate of rotation in a double cone blender?

The rate of rotation should be optimum based on factors like size, shape, and material.

Double cone blender is usually used for small amount of powders.

True

Which of the following is a disadvantage of using a twin shell blender?

It requires high headspace for installation

Which blender is suitable for blending fragile granules with minimum attrition?

A+B

What is one advantage of V cone blender and double cone blenders?

They handle large capacities

Which of the following is Correct advantages Advantages of V cone blender and double cone blenders:

All of the above

Which of the following is correct Disadvantages of V cone blender and double cone blenders:

All of the above

All of the following is correct Advantages of tumblers with blades except :

Cleaning may be a problem

Which of the following is correct Disdvantages of tumblers with blades except :

Serial dilution is not needed

What type of motion is responsible for mixing in a ribbon blender?

Shear

What is the construction of a ribbon blender?

Horizontal cylindrical trough with two helical blades

What is the effect of high shear rates in cohesive solids dosage forms?

A+C

What is the recommended loading and emptying method for a ribbon blender?

Top loading and bottom port emptying

What type of blender design is described as efficient and cost effective for dry mixing?

Ribbon blender

In which type of blender is liquid addition best accomplished through the use of spray nozzles installed in a spray bar located just above the agitator?

Ribbon blender

For blends that require a gentler mixing action, which type of agitator can be utilized in the same trough as the ribbons?

Paddle agitator

The Ribbon Blender : ribbons rotate with tip speeds of approximately 200 rpm

False

Which of the following are true uses of a ribbon blender?

All of the above

What is a disadvantage of a ribbon blender?

It has fixed speed drive

How does a ribbon blender achieve high shear?

By using perforated baffles.

What is the shearing action like in a ribbon blender compared to a planetary mixer?

Less

Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of a ribbon blender?

Perforated baffles

What type of motion does a sigma blade mixer create?

Shearing action

What is the purpose of using perforated blades in a sigma blade mixer?

To break lumps and aggregates

What is the result of a rapid rotation speed in a tumbler mixer?

High shear forces

What is the construction of a sigma blade mixer?

Double tough shaped stationary bowl

How many sigma shaped blades are fitted horizontally in each tough of the bowl?

Two

How is sigma blades the mixer loaded and unloaded ?

b. Loaded from the top and unloaded Mixer is loaded from top and unloaded by tilting the entire bowl.

What is the primary use of a sigma blade mixer?

Liquid-solid mixing in tablet manufacturing

Which of the following is correct advantage sigma blade mixer ?

A+B

Whhich of the foillowing is a disadvantage of a sigma blade mixer?

fixed speed

What is the sigma blade mixer suitable for in terms of drug properties?

Highly potent drugs

What is the principle mechanism of mixing in a planetary mixer?

Shearing

What is the construction feature that allows powder to make an upward movement in a planetary mixer?

Sloped blades

What drives the mixing shaft in a planetary mixer?

Planetary gear

What type of motion is responsible for mixing in a planetary mixer?

Double rotation

How is the mixing blade of a planetary mixer set?

Off center and rotating

What type of drive is usually used for the mixing shaft in a planetary mixer?

Variable speed drive

Which of the following is correct using a planetary mixer?

A+B

Planetary mixer Consists of vertical cylinder shell which can be removed.

True

What is a major advantage of a planetary mixer?

The speed of rotation can be varied at will

What is a common disadvantage of a planetary mixer?

It generates excessive mechanical heat within the powder mix

All of the following is a disadvantage of a planetary mixer except?

More useful for wet granulation process.

Planetary mixer Break down agglomerates (due to hygroscopicity or electrical charge) rapidly.

True

What is the principle mechanism of mixing in an air mixer or fluidized mixer?

Tumbling action and spiral movements caused by the movement of air

What is the construction material typically used for an air mixer or fluidized mixer?

Stainless steel

What type of materials are not suitable for mixing in an air mixer or fluidized mixer?

Light density materials

Which materials are suitable for mixing in an air mixer or fluidized mixer?

Cohesive materials.

How does the air circulate in an air mixer or fluidized mixer?

It is circulated using a fan.

Which of the following is advantage of a fluidized mixer ?

All of the above

What is the principle behind a barrel-type continuous mixer?

The shell rotates to keep the material under tumbling motion in 3D motion.

Which type of material is not shear ,not suitable for a barrel-type continuous mixer? a.

Cohesive material

Which of the following is correct Barrel type continuous mixer are bafflees used for in construction?

All of the above

Where is wet mixing commonly used in the production of tablets and capsules?

In the granulation step

What is dry mixing primarily used for?

Mixing powders ready for compression

All of the following dosage forms involve dry blending of powders except?

Soft drinks

True or False: Liquid mixing is not used in the production of injectable solutions.

False

Which of the following is correct Fluids mixing:

All of the above

What is one reason why mixing is important in the pharmaceutical industry?

To rapidly homogenize components in single phase systems

What is an extremely common operation in the pharmaceutical industry?

Mixing of fluids with other media(solids, liquids)

Which of the following is correct pharmaceutical processes require or are greatly enhanced :

A+B

What does single phase mixing refer to?

Mixing of miscible fluids

What is another term for single phase mixing?

Blending

What does multiphase mixing refer to?

Mixing of immiscible fluids

Which of the following is an example of multiphase mixing?

All of the above

What is bulk transport?

The movement of large portions of a material from one location to another in a given system using rotating blades and paddles.

What is turbulent mixing?

Mixing of fluids due to random fluctuation of the fluid velocity at any given point within the system.

How does laminar mixing occur?

Mixing of two dissimilar liquids through laminar flow.

What is molecular diffusion?

Mixing at a molecular level in which molecules diffuse due to thermal motion.

How does turbulent flow occur?

Through turbulent flow in three directions (X, Y, and Z)

What is the tangential component or circular flow pattern during mixing?

Flowing in a circular path around the impeller shaft

What happens when there is excessive radial component during mixing?

Material falls to the bottom of the container and rotates.

What happens when the shaft is placed vertically and centrally with tangential flow during mixing?

It creates a vortex in the liquid

What is the radial component flow pattern during mixing?

Acts in the direction vertical to the impeller shaft

What is the (Axial component or longitudinal or vertical )flow pattern during mixing?

Acts in the direction parallel to the impeller shaft

How does inadequate longitudinal component affect the mixing process?

It causes the liquid and solid to rotate in layers without mixing

When is the adequate longitudinal pattern best used during mixing?

When suspending solids are present in a liquid

When are baffles typically used?

A+C

Baffles are not used in laminar flow (high viscosity fluids)

True

Which type of flow is characterized by parallel layers?

Laminar flow

What is another name for laminar flow?

Streamline flow

Which type of flow has the absence of disruption between fluid layers?

Laminar flow

What are the three types of mixing devices classified based on shape and pitch?

Propellers, turbines, and paddles

What are the different flow patterns during mixing?

All of the above

How many blades does a propeller usually have in liquid ?

3

What determines whether a propeller's blades are right or left handed?

The slant of the blades

When are two or more propellers used?

In deep tanks

What is the primary effect of a propeller?

Axial flow

What is the typical size of a propeller?

More than 0.5 meters

Which of the following is correct Advantages of propellers:

All of the above

What is the maximum viscosity for effective propeller use?

2.0 pascals.sec

Propellers are ineffective with liquids of viscosity greater than:

5 pascal.second.

What kind of liquid are propellers ineffective with? a.

Glycerin Castor oil

What does the diameter of the turbine range from?

30-50% of the vessel's diameter

True or False: Turbines rotate at a higher speed than propellers.

False

What type of flow does a flat blade turbine produce as the speed increases?

Axial flow

True or False: Shear produced by turbines can be increased using a diffuser ring

True

What passes through the perforations in a diffuser ring?

Liquid

What is observed in the impeller zone of rapid currents? d. Smooth flow

A+B

What is the typical speed range of turbines?

50-200 rpm

What shape can the blades of a turbine be?

Straight or curved

What is the purpose of a diffuser ring?

To enhance shear forces

Which of the following is an advantage of turbines?

They give greater shearing forces than propellers.

Turbines are effective for which type of solutions?

Solutions with 7.0 Pascal-second viscosity.

What do turbines do in low viscous materials of large volumes?

Create strong currents and destroy stagnant pockets.

What percentage of solids can turbines handle in slurries?

60%

When are turbines suitable for liquids?

When the tank is baffled.

Which of the following statements about turbines is NOT true?

Turbines are not suitable for liquids of large volume.

What does a paddle consist of?

b. A central hub with long flat blades attached vertically

What shape can the blades of a paddle be?

c. Hemispherical

At what speed do paddles rotate?

100 rpm

How do paddles push the liquid?

B+C

At low speeds, what type of agitation do paddles provide in unbaffled tanks?

Mild agitation

Paddles :At very low speeds it gives mild agitation in unbaffled tank but as for high speeds baffles are necessary

True

Vortex formation is NOT possible with paddle impellers because of:

Low speed mixing

Which of the following is a disadvantage of paddles?

Poor mixing of the suspension

What can cause the formation of a vortex near the impeller shaft?

All of the above

Vortex formation reduces mixing intensity by:

Decreasing the velocity of the impeller relative to the surrounding fluid.

When a vortex reaches the impeller, what happens?

Air from the surface of the liquid is drawn in.

What can entrapped air in the fluid cause in certain cases?

Oxidation of substances.

How can air bubbles in the fluid affect the loading of the impeller blades?

They can make the loading uneven.

Which position of the impeller can help avoid symmetry and prevent vortex formation?

All of the above

When using baffled containers, how should the impeller be mounted?

Vertically at the center

What is the purpose of the push and pull mechanism in preventing vortex formation?

It creates a zone of high turbulence

Which shapes are used to prevent vortex formation?

Cylindrical shapes

What is the purpose of draft tubes?

To control the direction and velocity of the flow to the impeller

Where are draft tubes mounted in case of turbines?

Above the impeller

What are some uses of draft tubes?

All of the above

What is one disadvantage of draft tubes?

They add to fluid friction in the system and reduce the rate of flow

What is the purpose of inserting a draft tube in a tank?

A+B

TRUE OR FALSE When solid particles tend to float on the surface of the liquid, they are dispersed using draft tubes

True

Which of the following is NOT a material-related factor : (physical properties )that influences the choice of mixers in tanks

Temperature

Which of the following is an equipment-related factor that influences the choice of mixers?

All of the above

Which of the following is an process -related factor that influences the choice of mixers?

All of the above

All of the following is correct Equipment for Liquid mixing except :

Vortex flow

What is the principle of an air jet mixer?

All of the above.

What is the construction method used for an air jet mixer?

Passing compressed air at high pressure from the bottom inlet

What type of liquids are recommended for mixing by an air jet mixer?

Low viscosity, non-foaming, non-reactive with gas

How many jets are typically arranged radially in a cluster in the center of a jet mixing system?

12

What is the name given to the cluster of jets in an jet mixer?

Eddy jet mixer

What is the purpose of a suction chamber in an individual jet?

the two concentric nozzles

At what velocity does the pressurized fluid typically flow through the primary nozzle for low shear mixing?

6-10 m/s

What is the primary purpose of the jet mixer described ?

To create a suction to draw fluid from the tank into chamber and mix it intensely

What velocity range is typically used for high shear mixing in the jet mixer?

16-20 m/s

What does the plume formed by the jet mixer primarily do?

It imparts energy to the surrounding fluid, causing circulation and mixing

What is the purpose of the primary nozzles in the jet mixer?

To pump the tank contents of the top of the mixer to the primary nozzles

What type of pump is typically used to supply the liquid to be mixed?

Centrifugal pump

The range of applications for liquid jet mixers is only limited by the viscosity of the liquid to be mixed

True

What are the situations in which jet mixers are used?

A+C

What type of fluids are jet mixers most efficient for?

a. Liquids and Slurries with viscosities below 1,000 cP

Which of the following is generally more efficient for higher viscosity fluids?

Mechanical agitators

Which of the following is NOT a type of dosage form that requires liquid mixing?

A+B

All of the following is correct influence the actual flow of heat through the film except:

high local shear rates.

What happens to the heat transfer film when the liquid movement becomes faster?

The film becomes thinner.

What does the moving liquid in a vessel establish on the surface of the heat transfer barrier?

A heat transfer film coefficient

Which part of the vessel is used for circulating heating and cooling fluid?

Jacket exterior

Which of the following is NOT a stage in the preparation of fine emulsion?

Coarse emulsion preparation

What equipment can be used to prepare a coarse emulsion?

All of the above

manufacturing of emulsions Also known as homogenizer as it results in fine emulsion

True

The flow properties of liquids can be categorized as:

Newtonian, plastic, pseudo plastic, or dilatant

Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing the selection of an emulsifier?

Desired rate of heating

How does the Silverson mixer emulsifier produce intense shearing forces?

By using high-speed rotors

What is the purpose of the circulation of material in the Silverson mixer emulsifier?

To break down the dispersed liquid into smaller globules

How does circulation of material take place in the Silverson mixer emulsifier?

Through the suction produced in the inlet at the bottom of the head.

What does the central portion of the Silverson mixer emulsifier consist of?

d. A shaft connected to the motor

What surrounds the blades in the Silverson mixer emulsifier?

A cover with openings.

What is the Silverson® mixer used for?

Preparing emulsions and creams of fine particle size

Silverson® mixer is commonly used for which type of liquid?

Immiscible liquids

What is one disadvantage of the Silverson® mixer?

There is a chance of clogging of pores of the mesh occasionally

Which of the following is correct advantages of the Silverson® mixer?

All of the above

What is a colloid mill used for?

B+C

How does a colloid mill work on the rotor-stator?

By forming a dispersion of materials in a liquid

What is the material used to construct the rotor and stator in a colloid mill?

Toughened steel

In a colloid mill, where does the shearing action take place?

Between the rotating cone and the static cone

What factors affect the size of the final product obtained after comminution?

All of the above

What is the main use of a colloid mill?

Preparing suspensions

What is the primary use of a colloid mill?

All of the above

which of the following is correct is one advantage of colloid mills?

wide range of use,simply constructed,easily adjusted,easy to clean,High capacity and minimal requirements and Reduced wear

Pharmaceutical nano emulsions can be administered through which routes?

Parenteral, ocular, nasal, oral, topical, and even aerosolization to the lungs

What type of emulsion is commonly used as an intravenous source of fatty acids in the pharmaceutical industry?

Oil in water emulsion

What are nano emulsions used for in the pharmaceutical industry?

A+B

What happens to a liquid when it is subjected to ultrasonic vibrations?

Alternate regions of compression and rarefaction are produced

What is the principle behind the ultrasonic emulsifier?

Cavities are formed in the regions of compression

Which part of the ultrasonic emulsifier is connected to the inlet and outlet tubes?

Pump

What does the thin blade in the ultrasonic emulsifier do?

Vibrates at its natural frequency

What is one disadvantage of using a rapisonic emulsifier?

Can only be used for low viscosity liquids.

Which of the following is correct advantage of using a Rapisonic emulsifier?

All of the above

All of the following is correct advantage of using a Rapisonic emulsifier?

A+B

All of the following is correct examples of semisolid dosage forms except?

Tablets

Which property do some semisolids exhibit when it comes to viscosity and shear rates?

The viscosity increases with increasing shear rates

What happens when mechanical energy is applied to the material during mixing?

Some energy is converted to heat

The speed must be changed accordingly to thixotropic, plastic and pseudo plastic materials.

True

Mixing of semisolids :The mixing action include combination of low speed shear, smearing, wiping, folding, stretching and compressing.

True

Which of the following is an example of an agitator mixer?

b+c

Which type of mixer is used for shearing materials?

B+D

All of the following is correct Selection of mixing equipment for semi solids except:

Air jet mixer

What is the purpose of a triple roller mill?

All of the above

What are the rollers of a triple roller mill made of?

Stainless steel

Which roller of a triple roller mill rotates at the highest speed?

Third roller

Which of the following statements is true about three roll mills?

They are suitable for processing both small and large quantities.

Which of the following is correct Advantages of triple roller mill :

All of the above

Test your knowledge about tumblers or cylindrical blenders used for free flowing solids dosage forms, including their equipment and efficiency factors.

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