Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Quiz

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InsightfulNephrite9228
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30 Questions

What is the cause of acidosis?

High PCO2

How do the kidneys compensate for respiratory acid-base imbalance?

Retaining bicarbonate

What reflects problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in the young?

High rate of insensible water loss

At what age does the water content of the body decline until adulthood?

From birth until adulthood

What may elders be unresponsive to, putting them at risk of dehydration?

Thirst clues

What is the characteristic of alkalosis?

Low PCO2 and high pH

What is the approximate percentage of water content in healthy males?

60%

Where is interstitial fluid found?

In spaces between cells

Which factor contributes to the difference in water content between healthy males and females?

Higher body fat in females

What is the approximate percentage of water content in infants?

73% or more

Which is a major subdivision of extracellular fluid (ECF)?

Plasma

Where is intracellular fluid (ICF) contained?

In cells

What is the role of estrogens in electrolyte and water balance?

Enhance NaCl reabsorption and cause water retention

How does potassium balance affect heart conduction?

Affects cell membrane potential and can disrupt heart conduction

What is the role of aldosterone in potassium balance?

Stimulates potassium ion secretion by principal cells in cortical collecting ducts

What is the function of PTH in calcium regulation?

Promotes an increase in calcium levels by targeting bones, small intestine, and kidneys

What is the role of amphoteric molecules in acid-base balance?

They can function as both a weak acid and a weak base

What is the major anion in the extracellular fluid (ECF)?

Chloride, with 99% reabsorbed under normal pH conditions

How do the kidneys regulate acid-base balance?

By conserving or generating new bicarbonate ions, hydrogen ion secretion, and bicarbonate ion reabsorption

What are the normal pH levels of arterial blood, venous blood, and intracellular fluid, respectively?

7.4, 7.35, 7.0

What is the consequence of respiratory acidosis?

PCO2 levels above 45 mm Hg

How do the kidneys respond to acidosis?

Generate bicarbonate ions and add them to the blood, while adding an equal amount of hydrogen ions to the urine

What is the function of Type B intercalated cells in the kidneys during alkalosis?

Bicarbonate ion secretion and reclaiming hydrogen ions to acidify the blood

What is a common cause of metabolic acidosis?

Accumulation of lactic acid

What triggers thirst in the body?

Decline in plasma volume

What is the role of Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body?

Regulates water reabsorption in the collecting ducts

What causes hypotonic hydration?

Excessive water intake

What is the function of Aldosterone in the body?

Regulates sodium reabsorption in the kidneys

What is the consequence of dehydration?

Negative fluid balance

What is the main role of electrolytes like sodium in the body?

Crucial for neuromuscular excitability and fluid balance

Study Notes

Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in the Body

  • Water intake must balance water output to maintain proper hydration
  • Sources of water intake include ingested fluid, solid food, and metabolic water
  • Water output occurs through urine, feces, insensible losses, and sweat
  • Thirst is triggered by a decline in plasma volume or an increase in plasma osmolality
  • Obligatory water losses include insensible water losses and water in feces
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates water reabsorption in the collecting ducts
  • Factors triggering ADH release include fever, sweating, vomiting, and blood loss
  • Dehydration causes negative fluid balance and may lead to hypovolemic shock
  • Hypotonic hydration results from excessive water intake, leading to cellular overhydration
  • Edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space
  • Electrolytes, especially sodium, are crucial for neuromuscular excitability and fluid balance
  • Aldosterone regulates sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and is triggered by the renin-angiotensin mechanism

Test your knowledge of fluid and electrolyte balance in the body with this quiz. Explore the importance of water intake, output, and regulation, as well as the role of hormones like ADH and aldosterone. Gain insights into conditions like dehydration, hypotonic hydration, and edema, and understand the significance of electrolytes in maintaining fluid balance and neuromuscular function.

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