Issues & Debates

CrisperChaparral avatar
CrisperChaparral
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

150 Questions

According to the text, which approach in psychology assumes that behavior has evolved because of its survival value?

The nature approach

According to the text, which approach in psychology assumes that behavior is learned and influenced by external factors such as the environment?

The nurture approach

According to the text, which approach in psychology proposes that much of what we learn is through observation and vicarious reinforcement?

The behaviorist approach

According to the text, which approach in psychology argues that behavior cannot be understood in terms of the components that make them up?

The holistic approach

According to the text, which approach in psychology uses several levels of explanation, including biological, environmental, and social factors?

The holistic approach

According to the text, which model suggests that both a genetic predisposition and an appropriate environmental trigger are required for a mental disorder to develop?

The Diathesis-stress model

Which approach in psychology suggests that all behavior is determined and thus predictable?

Determinism

What is the main idea behind the free will approach in psychology?

We all have a choice and can control our behavior

Which type of determinism suggests that our behavior is caused by outside influences?

Environmental Determinism

According to Skinner, what is an illusion when it comes to freedom and free will?

Behavior being determined by reinforcement

Which perspective in psychology supports the idea of free will and personal responsibility?

Humanist Psychology

What is the main difference between nature and nurture in explaining behavior?

Nature suggests behavior is determined by biology and genes, while nurture focuses on environmental factors

Which of the following best describes alpha bias?

Exaggerating the differences between men and women

Which of the following best describes beta bias?

Minimizing the differences between men and women

Which of the following best describes androcentrism?

Treating male thinking as normal and female thinking as abnormal

According to Kitzinger (1998), why are questions about sex differences considered political?

To maintain the status quo of male power

According to feminists, how are gender differences used against women?

To maintain male power

According to Tavris (1993), how do biased sex-role stereotypes affect women's self-esteem?

Lowering women's self-esteem

According to the text, what is reductionism in psychology?

The belief that human behavior can be explained by breaking it down into smaller component parts

What is the main focus of the nomothetic approach in psychology?

Studying what we share with others and establishing laws or generalizations

What is the main focus of the idiographic approach in psychology?

Studying individual differences and what makes each person unique

Which research methods are favored by the nomothetic approach?

Experiments, correlation, psychometric testing, and other quantitative methods

Which research methods are favored by the idiographic approach?

Case studies, informal interviews, unstructured observation, and other qualitative methods

According to the text, what should be the ideal research approach in psychology?

Taking a combined approach by starting with a nomothetic approach and then moving to an idiographic approach

Which group of people are most affected by socially sensitive research?

The social group being studied

What is the main purpose of ethical guidelines for socially sensitive research?

To prevent deception in research findings

Which ethical guideline refers to the responsibility of researchers to disclose their results?

Ownership of data

What is an example of unjust treatment in socially sensitive research?

Withholding a beneficial treatment from some participants

What is the potential harm of publishing findings that reinforce racial stereotypes?

Discrimination against the racial group in the job market

What is the main difference between a humanistic approach and a scientific approach in psychology?

The focus on the individual vs. rigorous methodology

True or false: Gender bias occurs when one gender is treated more favorably than the other.

False

True or false: Alpha bias occurs when the differences between men and women are exaggerated.

True

True or false: Beta bias occurs when the differences between men and women are minimized.

True

True or false: Androcentrism refers to regarding female thinking/behavior as normal.

False

True or false: Gender differences are distorted to maintain the status quo of male power, according to Kitzinger (1998).

True

True or false: Biased sex-role stereotypes have the effect of lowering women's self-esteem.

True

True or false: Equal opportunity legislation and feminist psychology have helped reduce gender bias in research and draw attention to under-researched areas like childcare and sexual abuse.

True

True or false: Culturally biased research makes it difficult for psychologists to separate behavior from the context in which it was observed.

True

True or false: The determinist approach proposes that all behavior is determined and predictable.

True

True or false: The free will approach in psychology suggests that humans have the ability to make choices and control their own behavior.

True

True or false: The nature view suggests that all behavior is determined by biology and genetics.

True

True or false: According to Freud, free will is an illusion because our behavior is governed by unconscious motivations.

True

True or false: Evolutionary explanations of human behavior exemplify the nurture approach in psychology?

False

True or false: The main assumption underlying the nature approach in psychology is that any particular behavior has evolved because of its survival value?

True

True or false: Interpersonal attraction can be explained as a consequence of natural selection?

True

True or false: The behaviorist approach is an example of the nurture position in psychology?

True

True or false: The Diathesis-stress model of Schizophrenia suggests that only genetic factors are required for the development of the disease?

False

True or false: Holism argues that behavior can be understood in terms of the components that make them up?

False

Reductionism is the belief that human behavior can be explained by breaking it down into smaller component parts.

True

The idiographic approach looks at how our behaviors are similar to each other as human beings.

False

The nomothetic approach looks at how our behaviors are different from each other.

False

Experiments, correlation, psychometric testing, and other quantitative methods are favored from a nomothetic point of view.

True

Ethical guidelines in psychology ensure that participants are not deceived or humiliated during research.

True

The humanistic approach in psychology focuses on discovering laws or establishing generalizations.

False

True or false: IQ tests administered to black Americans typically show that they score 15 points below the average white score.

True

True or false: Socially Sensitive Research (SSR) may affect four groups: the social group being studied, friends and relatives of those participating, the research team, and the institution conducting the research.

True

True or false: Privacy in SSR refers to data rather than people.

False

True or false: In SSR, sound and valid methodology is less important when the research topic is socially sensitive.

False

True or false: In SSR, causing the wider public to believe something that isn't true by the findings you report is referred to as confidentiality.

False

True or false: In SSR, participants should be made aware of how taking part in the research may affect them, which is known as informed consent.

True

What are the three main types of gender bias discussed in the text?

Alpha bias, Beta bias, Androcentrism

According to the text, what are the positive consequences of gender bias?

Not mentioned in the text

According to the text, what are the negative consequences of gender bias?

Lowering women's self-esteem, making them think they have to improve themselves

According to Kitzinger (1998), why are questions about sex differences considered political?

To maintain the status quo of male power

According to feminists, how are gender differences used against women?

To maintain male power

What is the main purpose of ethical guidelines for socially sensitive research?

To ensure participants are not deceived or humiliated during research

According to the text, what is the main assumption underlying the evolutionary approach in psychology?

Any particular behavior has evolved because of its survival value.

According to the text, what is the main assumption underlying the nurture approach in psychology?

All behavior is learned and influenced by external factors such as the environment.

According to the text, what is the main idea behind the diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia?

Although people may inherit a predisposition to schizophrenia, some sort of environmental stressor is required in order to develop the disease.

According to the text, what is reductionism in psychology?

The belief that behavior can be explained by breaking it down into smaller component parts.

According to the text, what is holism in psychology?

The belief that behavior cannot be understood in terms of the components that make them up.

According to the text, what is the main focus of the idiographic approach in psychology?

Looking at how our behaviors are similar to each other as human beings.

Give an example of research that could be considered gender biased.

Any research that upholds or reinforces gender stereotypes or disempowers women in society.

What is the impact of gender biased research on society?

Gender biased research can perpetuate gender stereotypes and contribute to the marginalization and disempowerment of women.

How does cultural bias make it difficult for psychologists to separate behavior from its context?

Cultural bias can influence the way psychologists interpret and understand behavior, making it challenging to determine the universal aspects of human behavior.

What is the goal of equal opportunity legislation in psychology?

The goal of equal opportunity legislation is to eliminate cultural bias and racism in psychological research.

What is the main difference between the free will and determinist approaches in psychology?

The free will approach suggests that individuals have the ability to make choices and control their behavior, while the determinist approach proposes that behavior is determined and predictable.

What is the central question in the nature vs. nurture debate?

The central question is the extent to which behavior is determined by biology and genetics (nature) versus environmental factors (nurture).

What is reductionism in psychology?

Reductionism in psychology is the belief that human behavior can be explained by breaking it down into smaller component parts.

What is the main difference between a humanistic approach and a scientific approach in psychology?

The main difference between a humanistic approach and a scientific approach in psychology is that humanistic approach focuses on the individual and establishing generalizations, while scientific approach aims to discover laws and establish generalizations.

What is the main focus of the idiographic approach in psychology?

The main focus of the idiographic approach in psychology is to understand what makes each individual unique.

What is the main idea behind the free will approach in psychology?

The main idea behind the free will approach in psychology is that humans have the ability to make choices and control their own behavior.

What is the potential harm of publishing findings that reinforce racial stereotypes?

The potential harm of publishing findings that reinforce racial stereotypes is that it may perpetuate discrimination and prejudice against certain racial groups.

What should be the ideal research approach in psychology, according to Millon & Davis (1996)?

According to Millon & Davis (1996), the ideal research approach in psychology should start with a nomothetic approach to establish general 'laws,' and then move to a more idiographic approach to understand individual uniqueness.

What are the four groups that may be affected by socially sensitive research?

Members of the social group being studied, friends and relatives of those taking part in the study, the research team, and the institution in which the research is conducted.

What are the ethical guidelines suggested by Sieber and Stanley for carrying out socially sensitive research?

Privacy, confidentiality, sound and valid methodology, deception, informed consent, justice and equitable treatment, scientific freedom, ownership of data, and cost/benefit analysis.

Why is it important to have sound and valid methodology in socially sensitive research?

Sound and valid methodology is vital in socially sensitive research because when research findings are publicized, people are likely to take them as fact, and policies may be based on them.

What is the potential harm of publishing findings that reinforce racial stereotypes?

The potential harm of publishing findings that reinforce racial stereotypes is that they are used to discriminate against the black population in the job market and other areas.

What is the main difference between the humanistic approach and the scientific approach in psychology?

The main difference between the humanistic approach and the scientific approach in psychology is that the humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of individuals and quality of life, while the scientific approach focuses on rigorous methodology and objective data.

What is reductionism in psychology?

Reductionism in psychology is the belief that human behavior can be explained by breaking it down into smaller component parts.

Research that upholds or reinforces gender stereotypes could be considered ______ biased.

gender

The determinist approach proposes that all behavior is ______ and thus predictable.

determined

The view that all our behavior is determined by our biology and our genes is known as the ______ view.

nature

The nature view suggests that all behavior is determined by our ______ and our genes.

biology

The free will approach in psychology suggests that humans have the ability to make choices and control their own ______.

behavior

The idiographic approach looks at how our behaviors are similar to each other as ______ beings.

human

According to the text, the idiographic approach in psychology looks at how our behaviors are ______ from each other

different

The nomothetic approach in psychology looks at how our behaviors are ______ to each other

similar

The ethical guidelines in psychology ensure that participants are not ______ or humiliated during research

deceived

The humanistic approach in psychology focuses on discovering laws or establishing ______

generalizations

According to the text, the difference between a nomothetic and an idiographic approach is not just a question of what the psychologist wants to discover but also of the ______ used

methods

According to the text, the idiographic approach in psychology wants to discover what makes each of us ______

unique

Gender bias occurs when one gender is treated less favorably than the other, often referred to as ______, and it has a range of consequences, including: Avoiding gender bias does not mean pretending that men and women are the same.

sexism

The three main types of gender bias are: Alpha bias – this occurs when the differences between men and women are ______. Therefore, stereotypically male and female characteristics may be emphasized.

exaggerated

Beta bias -this occurs when the differences between men and women are ______. This often happens when findings obtained from men are applied to women without additional validation.

minimized

Androcentrism – taking male thinking/behavior as normal, regarding female thinking/behavior as deviant, inferior, abnormal, or ‘other’ when it is ______.

different

Positive Consequences of Gender Bias Alpha Bias: ______

None

Negative Consequences of Gender Bias Alpha Bias: ______

lowering women's self-esteem

Evolutionary explanations of human behavior exemplify the ______ approach in psychology

nature

The main assumption underlying this approach is that any particular behavior has evolved because of its ______ value

survival

The nurture approach in psychology assumes that all behavior is ______ through the environment

learned

The behaviorist approach is the clearest example of the ______ position in psychology

nurture

According to the text, ______ is often referred to as Gestalt psychology

Holism

Holism argues that behavior cannot be understood in terms of the ______ that make them up

components

According to the text, what are the four groups that may be affected by socially sensitive research?

Members of the social group being studied, friends and relatives of those taking part in the study, the research team, and the institution in which the research is conducted.

According to the text, what is the main potential harm of publishing findings that reinforce racial stereotypes?

They are used to discriminate against the black population in the job market, etc.

According to the text, what are the main ethical guidelines for carrying out socially sensitive research?

Privacy, confidentiality, sound & valid methodology, deception, informed consent, justice & equitable treatment, scientific freedom, ownership of data, and cost/benefit analysis.

According to the text, what is the main difference between a humanistic approach and a scientific approach in psychology?

A humanistic approach focuses on individuals and quality of life, while a scientific approach emphasizes rigorous methodology and objective data.

According to the text, what is the main assumption underlying the nature approach in psychology?

Any particular behavior has evolved because of its survival value.

According to the text, what is the main purpose of ethical guidelines for socially sensitive research?

To ensure the protection and well-being of participants and to prevent potential harm or discrimination.

Match the types of gender bias with their definitions:

Alpha bias = This occurs when the differences between men and women are exaggerated Beta bias = This occurs when the differences between men and women are minimized Androcentrism = Taking male thinking/behavior as normal, regarding female thinking/behavior as deviant, inferior, abnormal, or 'other' when it is different

Match the following consequences of gender bias with their types:

Emphasizing stereotypically male and female characteristics = Alpha Bias Applying findings obtained from men to women without additional validation = Beta Bias

Match the following statements with the correct approaches in psychology:

Any particular behavior has evolved because of its survival value = Nature Approach Behavior cannot be understood in terms of the components that make them up = Holism All behavior is determined and predictable = Determinist Approach Behavior is learned and influenced by external factors such as the environment = Nurture Approach

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Holism = Argues that behavior cannot be understood in terms of the components that make them up Determinist Approach = Proposes that all behavior is determined and predictable Nurture Approach = Assumes that all behavior is shaped through the environment

Match the following statements with the correct perspectives in psychology:

Humans have the ability to make choices and control their own behavior = Free Will Approach Behavior has evolved because of its survival value = Nature Approach Experiments, correlation, psychometric testing, and other quantitative methods are favored = Nomothetic Approach

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Alpha Bias = This occurs when the differences between men and women are exaggerated Beta Bias = This occurs when the differences between men and women are minimized Androcentrism = Taking male thinking/behavior as normal, regarding female thinking/behavior as deviant, inferior, abnormal, or 'other' when it is different

Match the following approaches in psychology with their main assumptions:

Evolutionary approach = Behavior has evolved because of its survival value Nurture approach = All behavior is learned and influenced by external factors Behaviorist approach = All behavior is learned through the environment Holistic approach = Behavior cannot be understood in terms of the components that make them up

Match the following concepts with their definitions:

Diathesis-stress model of Schizophrenia = People may inherit a predisposition to Schizophrenia, but some sort of environmental stressor is required for the disease to develop Alpha bias = Emphasizes the differences between men and women Beta bias = Ignores or minimizes the differences between men and women Androcentrism = Regarding male thinking/behavior as normal

Match the following terms with their explanations:

Nature = All behavior is determined by biology and genetics Nurture = All behavior is learned through the environment Reductionism = Behavior can be understood by breaking it down into its smallest parts Holism = Behavior cannot be understood in terms of the components that make them up

Match the following concepts with their descriptions:

Empiricists = Supporters of the nurture view who believe that all knowledge is gained through experience Double bind hypothesis = Explains schizophrenia as a result of contradictory messages received from parents Bobo doll experiments = Demonstrated that children tend to imitate aggressive behavior they observe Diathesis-stress model = Explains how a genetic predisposition and an appropriate environmental trigger are required for a mental disorder to develop

Match the following ideas with their proponents:

Attachment behaviors ensure the survival of an infant and the perpetuation of the parents’ genes = Bowlby Much of what we learn is through observation and vicarious reinforcement = Bandura Behavior is a product of natural selection = Evolutionary psychologists All behavior is learned through the environment = Behaviorist approach

Match the following psychological approaches with their views on behavior:

Evolutionary approach = Behavior is a product of natural selection Nurture approach = All behavior is learned through the environment Behaviorist approach = All behavior is learned through the environment Holistic approach = Behavior cannot be understood in terms of the components that make them up

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Gender Bias = Occurs when one gender is treated more favorably than the other Determinism = The view that all behavior is determined and thus predictable Nature = The view that all our behavior is determined by our biology and our genes Free Will = The view that we all have a choice and can control and choose our own behavior

Match the following approaches in psychology with their main assumptions:

Determinism = All behavior is determined and thus predictable Nature = All our behavior is determined by our biology and our genes Free Will = We all have a choice and can control and choose our own behavior Cultural Bias = Makes it difficult for psychologists to separate the behavior they have observed from the context in which they observed it

Match the following research concepts with their definitions:

Alpha Bias = Occurs when the differences between men and women are exaggerated Beta Bias = Occurs when the differences between men and women are minimized or ignored Environmental Determinism = The idea that our behavior is caused by some sort of outside influence Psychic Determinism = Belief that childhood experiences and unconscious motivations govern behavior

Match the following ethical guidelines with their descriptions:

Informed Consent = The right of participants to know what will happen to them during the research and to choose whether to participate Debriefing = The post-experimental explanation of the study to the participants Confidentiality = The obligation of the researcher to not disclose private information about the participant Protection from Harm = The right of participants to be protected from physical or psychological harm

Match the following concepts with their explanations:

Nativists = Supporters of the nature view that believe that all our behavior is determined by our biology and our genes Holism = The idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Skinner = Argued that freedom is an illusion and that the probability of any behavior occurring is determined by past experiences Freud = Believed that the causes of our behavior are unconscious and still predictable

Match the following perspectives in psychology with their beliefs:

Humanistic Psychology = Supports the idea of free will and personal responsibility Cognitive Psychology = To a lesser degree, supports the idea of free will and choice Behaviorist Approach = Believes that freedom is an illusion and that behavior is determined by past experiences Evolutionary Approach = Believes that any particular behavior has evolved because of its survival value

Match the following psychological approaches with their corresponding definitions:

Reductionism = The belief that human behavior can be explained by breaking it down into smaller component parts Nomothetic Approach = Looks at how our behaviors are similar to each other as human beings, mainly concerned with studying what we share with others Idiographic Approach = Looks at how our behaviors are different from each other, interested in discovering what makes each of us unique Ethical Guidelines = Rules and regulations that researchers must follow to ensure the safety and well-being of participants in their studies

Match the following research methods with the corresponding psychological approaches:

Quantitative methods = Favored from a nomothetic point of view Qualitative methods = Favored from an idiographic point of view Experiments, correlation, psychometric testing = Nomothetic Case studies, informal interviews, unstructured observation = Idiographic

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Alpha Bias = Occurs when one gender is treated less favorably than the other Behaviorist Psychology = Sees behavior in terms of simple stimulus/response relationships Cognitive Psychology = Reduces behavior to the level of a machine, mechanistic reductionism Psychodynamic Perspective = Reduces behavior to unconscious motivation and early childhood experiences

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Gender Bias = Occurs when one gender is treated less favorably than the other Androcentrism = Occurs when one gender is considered the norm and the other is considered deviant or inferior Ethical Issues in Psychology = Concerned with the moral and ethical aspects of research, including the treatment of participants and the dissemination of research findings Free Will Approach = Suggests that humans have the ability to make choices and control their own behavior

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Reductionism = The belief that human behavior can be explained by breaking it down into smaller component parts Behaviorist Psychology = Sees behavior in terms of simple stimulus/response relationships Cognitive Psychology = Reduces behavior to the level of a machine, mechanistic reductionism Psychodynamic Perspective = Reduces behavior to unconscious motivation and early childhood experiences

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Alpha Bias = Occurs when one gender is treated less favorably than the other Behaviorist Psychology = Sees behavior in terms of simple stimulus/response relationships Cognitive Psychology = Reduces behavior to the level of a machine, mechanistic reductionism Psychodynamic Perspective = Reduces behavior to unconscious motivation and early childhood experiences

Match the following ethical guidelines for socially sensitive research with their descriptions:

Privacy = Refers to people rather than data. Asking people questions of a personal nature (e.g., about sexuality) could offend. Confidentiality = Refers to data. Information (e.g., about H.I.V. status) leaked to others may affect the participant’s life. Deception = Causing the wider public to believe something, which isn’t true by the findings, you report (e.g., that parents are totally responsible for how their children turn out). Informed consent = Participants should be made aware of how taking part in the research may affect them.

Match the following groups with their potential involvement in socially sensitive research:

Members of the social group being studied = They may be affected by the research, such as racial or ethnic group. Friends and relatives of those taking part in the study = Particularly in case studies, where individuals may become famous or infamous. The research team = There are examples of researchers being intimidated because of the line of research they are in. The institution in which the research is conducted = Ethical issues may arise at this level.

Match the following terms with their definitions in the context of socially sensitive research:

Scientific freedom = The researcher should weigh their responsibilities against their rights to do the research. Ownership of data = When research findings could be used to make social policies, which affect people’s lives, should they be publicly accessible. Cost/benefit analysis = If the costs outweigh the potential/actual benefits, it is unethical. Justice & equitable treatment = Examples of unjust treatment are (i) publicizing an idea, which creates a prejudice against a group, & (ii) withholding a treatment, which you believe is beneficial, from some participants so that you can use them as controls.

Match the following approaches in psychology with their characteristics:

Humanistic approach = Individuals are important and worthy of study, quality of life is important, intuition is useful. Scientific approach = Rigorous methodology, objective data. Nomothetic approach = Focuses on discovering laws or establishing generalizations. Idiographic approach = Looks at how our behaviors are similar to each other as human beings.

Match the following terms with their definitions in the context of socially sensitive research:

Sound & valid methodology = This is even more vital when the research topic is socially sensitive. Academics are able to detect flaws in methods, but the lay public and the media often don’t. Deception = Causing the wider public to believe something, which isn’t true by the findings, you report. Scientific freedom = Science should not be censored, but there should be some monitoring of sensitive research. Informed consent = Participants should be made aware of how taking part in the research may affect them.

Match the following terms with their definitions in the context of socially sensitive research:

Privacy = Refers to people rather than data. Asking people questions of a personal nature (e.g., about sexuality) could offend. Confidentiality = Refers to data. Information (e.g., about H.I.V. status) leaked to others may affect the participant’s life. Deception = Causing the wider public to believe something, which isn’t true by the findings, you report (e.g., that parents are totally responsible for how their children turn out). Informed consent = Participants should be made aware of how taking part in the research may affect them.

Test your knowledge of evolutionary explanations of human behavior and the nature approach in psychology with this quiz. Learn about the main assumption underlying this approach and how behaviors have evolved due to their survival value. Explore concepts such as attachment behaviors and their role in ensuring the survival of infants and the perpetuation of genes.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser