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# Error Variance in Within-Subjects Design

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@RecordSettingRiver

### What is the matched-pairs design equivalent to?

• The matched multigroup design
• The between-subjects design
• The within-subjects design
• The randomized multi-group design (correct)
• ### What is the main advantage of within-subjects designs?

• They are more suitable for complex designs
• They are less prone to subject attrition
• They reduce error variance due to individual differences among subjects (correct)
• They are less demanding on subjects
• ### What is a potential source of carryover effects in within-subjects designs?

• Learning (correct)
• Motivation
• Attention
• Memory
• ### What is a disadvantage of within-subjects designs?

<p>They are more demanding on subjects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is habituation in the context of within-subjects designs?

<p>Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Why may subjects compare treatments in within-subjects designs?

<p>Because they are exposed to multiple treatments</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main purpose of holding extraneous variables constant in a single-factor randomized groups design?

<p>To isolate the effect of the independent variable</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is a disadvantage of the randomized two-group design?

<p>It provides limited information about the effect of the independent variable</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main difference between a parametric design and a nonparametric design?

<p>The type of differences between the levels of the independent variable</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the main purpose of a single-factor randomized groups design?

<p>To compare the means of two groups</p> Signup and view all the answers

### Why is the randomized two-group design considered a simple design?

<p>It involves a simple analysis and requires fewer subjects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary purpose of counterbalancing in a within-subjects design?

<p>To measure the size of carryover effects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What type of design is used when the number of treatment orders is equal to the number of treatments?

<p>The Latin Square Design</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the result of adaptation in a within-subjects design?

<p>Earlier results may differ from later ones</p> Signup and view all the answers

### When is a within-subjects design most suitable?

<p>When subject variables are correlated with the dependent variable</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of making treatment order an independent variable?

<p>To measure the size of carryover effects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary advantage of using techniques such as pre-training, practice sessions, or rest periods between treatments?

<p>To reduce some forms of carryover effects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is a major source of error variance in a within-subjects design?

<p>Individual differences among subjects</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the purpose of randomizing error variance across groups?

<p>To distribute error variance equivalently across levels of the independent variable</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What can be done to reduce error variance in a within-subjects design?

<p>Hold extraneous variables constant by treating subjects similarly</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the role of statistical analysis in handling error variance?

<p>To estimate the probability that observed differences are due to error variance</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What can be done to increase the effectiveness of the independent variable?

<p>Use a strong manipulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the advantage of using random assignment of subjects to levels of the independent variable?

<p>It equalizes error variance across groups</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary advantage of a factorial design?

<p>It enables the evaluation of the main effects of each independent variable and their interactions</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What occurs when the effect of one independent variable changes over levels of a second independent variable?

<p>An interaction is observed</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for the separate effect of each independent variable in a factorial design?

<p>Main effect</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the result of adding more independent variables to a factorial design?

<p>The complexity of the design and the number of possible main effects and interactions increase</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the primary difference between a factorial design and a single-factor design?

<p>The number of independent variables manipulated</p> Signup and view all the answers

### What is the term for a factorial design with more than two independent variables?

<p>Higher-order factorial design</p> Signup and view all the answers

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