Energy Balance & Weight Management Quiz
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Energy Balance & Weight Management Quiz

Test your knowledge of energy balance and weight management with this quiz. Explore concepts such as Total Energy Expenditure measurement, factors affecting Resting Metabolic Rate, energy balance principles, and weight loss strategies.

Created by
@HarmlessGyrolite4817

Questions and Answers

What is the BMI threshold for obesity in adults according to the US DHHS?

BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m$^2$

According to the US CDC and Prevention growth charts, what BMI percentile indicates obesity in children and adolescents?

BMI ≥ 95th percentile

What percentage of the world's population is affected by obesity according to WHO?

13%

What percentage of adults in the United States were classified as severely obese in 2010?

<p>6.6%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of the variability among individuals in absolute & relative body fat is attributed to genetic factors?

<p>25%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the probability that adolescents become obese adults if one or both parents are overweight or obese?

<p>80%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of having a higher SAT:VAT ratio on the risk for metabolic & cardiovascular disease?

<p>Increases the risk</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to the number of fat cells in lean & obese adults according to the traditional theory?

<p>Remains constant</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Tchoukalova & Colleagues observe in normal-weight adult men & women after inducing a body fat gain of about 4 kg?

<p>Hypertrophy in the upper body and hyperplasia in the lower body</p> Signup and view all the answers

What factors are associated with obesity according to the text?

<p>Psychological, social, and cultural factors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of children were obese when both parents were of normal weight?

<p>10%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the prevalence range of obesity and overweight among adults aged 20-74 in the US?

<p>13% to 47%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of adults aged 20-74 in the US have a BMI ≥ 30?

<p>56%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some risks of obesity?

<p>Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, and various cancers</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some risks of being underweight?

<p>Cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and reproductive disorders</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the main types of obesity based on body fat distribution?

<p>Android and gynoid obesity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some causes of overweight and obesity?

<p>Physiological, developmental, genetic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What measures play a role in energy need and expenditure?

<p>Metabolism, energy balance, and hormones</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the measures of energy needed for essential physiological functions?

<p>Basal metabolic rate and resting metabolic rate</p> Signup and view all the answers

How is energy need and expenditure measured?

<p>In kilocalories, with direct and indirect calorimetry used for assessment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the different etiologies and subtypes of obesity?

<p>Metabolically Healthy, but Obese (MHO) and Metabolically Unhealthy &amp; Obese (MUHO)</p> Signup and view all the answers

How do metabolic characteristics differ among individuals?

<p>Metabolically Healthy, Metabolically Unhealthy, and Metabolically Obese, but Normal Weight individuals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What components comprise total energy expenditure?

<p>Various components</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the Doubly-Labeled Water Method use to measure Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)?

<p>Deuterium and oxygen-18</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does 1 MET represent in Indirect Calorimetry?

<p>3.5 mL·kg^-1·min^-1 of O2 consumption</p> Signup and view all the answers

What factors can affect Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)?

<p>Heredity, hormones, age, gender, body composition, size, weight changes, and exercise</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Static Energy Balance assume?

<p>No influence between changes in energy intake and expenditure</p> Signup and view all the answers

When does positive energy balance occur?

<p>When caloric intake exceeds expenditure, leading to weight gain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of negative energy balance?

<p>Caloric intake being less than expenditure, causing weight loss</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Wishnofsky’s Rule, how many kcal deficit is required to lose 1 lb of body weight?

<p>3500 kcal</p> Signup and view all the answers

How much of a cumulative energy deficit is necessary to lose 1 pound of body weight, assuming exclusive loss of adipose tissue?

<p>3500 kcal</p> Signup and view all the answers

In a weight loss program, what caloric deficit per day can be aimed for through reduced intake and increased exercise?

<p>700 to 800 kcal</p> Signup and view all the answers

To lose 10 lb of body weight exclusively as fat, how much of a caloric deficit is needed?

<p>35000 kcal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the BMI threshold for obesity in children and adolescents according to the US CDC and Prevention growth charts?

<p>BMI ≥ 95th percentile</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of adults in the United States were classified as severely obese in 2010?

<p>6.6%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of the world's population is affected by obesity according to WHO?

<p>13%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the prevalence range of obesity and overweight among adults in the United States?

<p>Obesity: 30-35%, Overweight: 55-60%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate percentage of interindividual variability in body weight attributed to genetic factors?

<p>25%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the classification of fat cell number in obese individuals compared to non-obese individuals?

<p>40% more than non-obese</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to the traditional theory, what happens to the number of fat cells in lean & obese adults?

<p>Remains constant in both lean &amp; obese adults</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Tchoukalova & Colleagues observe in normal-weight adult men & women after inducing a body fat gain of about 4 kg?

<p>Hypertrophy in the upper body, hyperplasia in the lower body</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of having a higher SAT:VAT ratio on the risk for metabolic & cardiovascular disease?

<p>Decreases the risk</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the main factors associated with obesity according to the text?

<p>Genetic, developmental, and psychosocial factors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate percentage of variability in body weight associated with cultural (environmental) factors?

<p>30%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate percentage of children who were obese when both parents were of normal weight?

<p>10%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the estimated prevalence of obesity in Canadian adults by province from 2005 to 2017/18?

<p>15% to 50%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the main types of obesity based on body fat distribution?

<p>Android and Gynoid obesity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the BMI threshold for obesity in adults according to the US DHHS?

<p>$BMI extgreater 30$</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the measures of energy needed for essential physiological functions?

<p>Basal metabolic rate and resting metabolic rate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the different etiologies and subtypes of obesity?

<p>Metabolically Healthy, but Obese (MHO) and Metabolically Unhealthy &amp; Obese (MUHO)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What factors play a role in energy need and expenditure?

<p>Metabolism, Energy balance, and Hormones</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the prevalence range of obesity and overweight among adults aged 20-74 in the US?

<p>13% to 47%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some risks of being underweight?

<p>Osteoporosis, Reproductive disorders, and Anemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of negative energy balance?

<p>Weight loss</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Static Energy Balance assume?

<p>Energy intake equals energy expenditure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are the risks of obesity?

<p>Cardiovascular diseases, Diabetes, and Hypertension</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of having a higher SAT:VAT ratio on the risk for metabolic & cardiovascular disease?

<p>Increased risk</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the equation to convert oxygen consumption from mL·kg-1·min-1 to METs?

<p>$ ext{METs} = rac{ ext{mL·kg-1·min-1}}{3.5}$</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between Static Energy Balance and Dynamic Energy Balance?

<p>Static Energy Balance assumes no influence between changes in energy intake and expenditure, while Dynamic Energy Balance considers various biological and behavioral factors influencing both energy intake and expenditure.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of positive energy balance?

<p>Weight gain</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Wishnofsky’s Rule, how many kcal deficit is required to lose 1 lb of body weight?

<p>3500 kcal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate daily caloric deficit needed to lose 10 lb of body weight exclusively as fat, assuming a 3500 kcal deficit is needed to lose 1 lb?

<p>800 kcal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What factors affect Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)?

<p>Age, gender, size, and weight changes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What method uses deuterium and oxygen-18 to measure Total Energy Expenditure (TEE)?

<p>Doubly-Labeled Water Method</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the estimated cumulative energy deficit necessary to lose 1 pound of body weight, assuming exclusive loss of adipose tissue?

<p>3500 kcal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of negative energy balance?

<p>Weight loss</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does a Digital Activity Log record?

<p>Physical activities</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary factor affecting Dynamic Energy Balance?

<p>Exercise</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate percentage of interindividual variability in body weight attributed to genetic factors?

<p>70%</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Energy Balance and Weight Management

  • Doubly-Labeled Water Method uses deuterium and oxygen-18 to measure Total Energy Expenditure (TEE).
  • Indirect Calorimetry measures energy expenditure in METs, with 1 MET being equivalent to 3.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 of O2 consumption.
  • Digital Activity Log records physical activities on a handheld computer.
  • Factors affecting Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) include heredity, hormones, age, gender, body composition, size, weight changes, and exercise.
  • Static Energy Balance assumes no influence between changes in energy intake and expenditure.
  • Dynamic Energy Balance considers various biological and behavioral factors influencing both energy intake and expenditure.
  • Positive energy balance occurs when caloric intake exceeds expenditure, leading to weight gain.
  • Negative energy balance results from caloric intake being less than expenditure, causing weight loss.
  • Wishnofsky’s Rule states that a 3500 kcal deficit is required to lose 1 lb of body weight.
  • A cumulative energy deficit of 3500 kcal is necessary to lose 1 pound of body weight, assuming exclusive loss of adipose tissue.
  • A weight loss program can aim for a calorie deficit of 700 to 800 kcal per day through reduced intake and increased exercise.
  • To lose 10 lb of body weight exclusively as fat, a 35000 kcal deficit is needed, equating to a caloric deficit of 800 kcal/day for about 6.25 weeks.

Obesity and Overweight Statistics in the US and Canada

  • In the US, the prevalence of obesity and overweight among adults aged 20-74 ranges from 13% to 47%, with a BMI ≥ 30 at 56%.
  • The prevalence of self-reported obesity among US adults, based on BRFSS data, has seen methodological changes since 2011.
  • Canadian Community Health Survey data shows the estimated prevalence of obesity in Canadian adults by province from 2005 to 2017/18.
  • Risks of obesity include cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, and various cancers.
  • Risks of being underweight include cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and reproductive disorders.
  • Obesity is determined by total body fat and body fat distribution, with android and gynoid obesity being the main types.
  • Obesity has different etiologies and subtypes, including Metabolically Healthy, but Obese (MHO) and Metabolically Unhealthy & Obese (MUHO).
  • Metabolic characteristics differ between Metabolically Healthy, Metabolically Unhealthy, and Metabolically Obese, but Normal Weight individuals.
  • Causes of overweight and obesity include physiological, developmental, genetic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors.
  • Physiological factors such as metabolism, energy balance, and hormones play a role in energy need and expenditure.
  • Energy need and expenditure are measured in kilocalories, with direct and indirect calorimetry used for assessment.
  • Basal metabolic rate and resting metabolic rate are measures of energy needed for essential physiological functions, with total energy expenditure comprising various components.

Energy Balance and Weight Management

  • Doubly-Labeled Water Method uses deuterium and oxygen-18 to measure Total Energy Expenditure (TEE).
  • Indirect Calorimetry measures energy expenditure in METs, with 1 MET being equivalent to 3.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 of O2 consumption.
  • Digital Activity Log records physical activities on a handheld computer.
  • Factors affecting Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) include heredity, hormones, age, gender, body composition, size, weight changes, and exercise.
  • Static Energy Balance assumes no influence between changes in energy intake and expenditure.
  • Dynamic Energy Balance considers various biological and behavioral factors influencing both energy intake and expenditure.
  • Positive energy balance occurs when caloric intake exceeds expenditure, leading to weight gain.
  • Negative energy balance results from caloric intake being less than expenditure, causing weight loss.
  • Wishnofsky’s Rule states that a 3500 kcal deficit is required to lose 1 lb of body weight.
  • A cumulative energy deficit of 3500 kcal is necessary to lose 1 pound of body weight, assuming exclusive loss of adipose tissue.
  • A weight loss program can aim for a calorie deficit of 700 to 800 kcal per day through reduced intake and increased exercise.
  • To lose 10 lb of body weight exclusively as fat, a 35000 kcal deficit is needed, equating to a caloric deficit of 800 kcal/day for about 6.25 weeks.

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