# Electromagnetic Waves and Their Properties

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## 15 Questions

3 x 10^8 m/s

Transverse waves

Medium

### What makes coiled wires with an iron core act as magnets?

Conducting electric current

### How are electromagnetic waves produced?

By vibrating charges

3 x 10^8 m/s

### Who developed the scientific theory of electromagnetic waves in the 19th century?

James Clerk Maxwell

### Which type of electromagnetic waves are ionizing radiation?

Gamma rays and x-rays

### What did André-Marie Ampère discover in the early 19th century?

Magnetic effect of electric currents

### What is the main characteristic that distinguishes different types of electromagnetic waves?

Wavelength, frequency, and energy

Heinrich Hertz

### What does the speed of an electromagnetic wave depend on according to the equation v = λf?

Wavelength and frequency

19th century

## Study Notes

• A magnetic field is created around a wire conducting electric current, with coiled wires (solenoids) acting as magnets when an iron core is present, known as electromagnets.
• Electromagnetic waves are considered both electric and magnetic in nature, containing electric and magnetic fields that can exert forces on charged particles and magnets without contact.
• Electromagnetic waves are produced when a charge changes direction or speed, such as electrons vibrating in a material.
• Electromagnetic waves consist of electric and magnetic fields positioned at right angles to each other and to the direction of motion, making them transverse waves.
• Electromagnetic waves carry energy through the vibration of electric and magnetic fields, traveling at a speed of 3 x 10^8 m/s or 300 million m/s, denoted as "c" (the speed of light).
• All electromagnetic waves have the same speed and are inversely proportional to each other in terms of wavelength and frequency.
• Electromagnetic waves, unlike other waves, do not require a medium to travel and can travel in a vacuum.
• Unlike electromagnetic waves, sound requires a medium to be transmitted.
• The speed of light is slightly slower in materials such as air, glass, etc. compared to a vacuum.
• Electromagnetic waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes various types of waves such as radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays.
• Different types of electromagnetic waves have distinct characteristics, such as wavelength, frequency, and energy, which can be used for various applications, such as radio communication, microwave heating, infrared detection, visible light perception, ultraviolet radiation sterilization, X-ray imaging, and gamma radiation therapy.- Electromagnetic waves are produced by accelerated or oscillating charges.
• They do not require a material or medium for propagation.
• They travel in free space at the speed of 3 x 10^8 m/s (approximately 300 million meters per second).
• Electromagnetic wave theory has its roots in ancient studies of atmospheric electricity, particularly lightning.
• James Clerk Maxwell, an English scientist, developed the scientific theory of electromagnetic waves in the 19th century.
• Maxwell discovered that electromagnetic waves are transverse waves consisting of changing electric and magnetic fields oscillating perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation.
• He also found that changing electric and magnetic fields generate each other through Faraday's law of induction and Ampere's law of electromagnetism.
• Electromagnetic waves were experimentally confirmed by Heinrich Hertz's production and reception of radio waves in the late 1880s.
• Michael Faraday, an English chemist and physicist, made fundamental contributions to the electromagnetic theory of light in addition to his discoveries in electromagnetic induction and electrochemistry.
• André-Marie Ampère discovered the magnetic effect of electric currents in the early 19th century.
• Hans Christian Ørsted discovered that electric currents can deflect a magnetized compass needle.
• Electromagnetic waves are classified into various types based on their frequencies and wavelengths, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet rays, x-rays, and gamma rays.
• The electromagnetic spectrum arranges electromagnetic waves in order of increasing frequency and wavelength.
• Electromagnetic waves carry photons, which are bundles of wave energy.
• The energy of electromagnetic waves increases with their frequency.
• Gamma rays and x-rays are ionizing radiation, while radio waves, microwaves, infrared rays, and visible light are non-ionizing radiation.
• All electromagnetic waves can travel through a medium but also through a vacuum or empty space.
• The electromagnetic wave speed, frequency, and wavelength are related according to the equation v = λf, where v is the wave speed, f is the frequency, and λ is the wavelength.

Test your knowledge of electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, production, and historical discoveries. Explore the properties of these waves, including their transverse nature, speed, energy, and applications.

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