Effects of TNFα on Vascular Endothelium

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13 Questions

Which of the following is NOT a common bacteria associated with sepsis?

Candida albicans

What is the primary purpose of stimulating systemic overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in experimental models of septic shock?

To mimic the immune response observed in sepsis patients

Which phase of the immune response to infection involves the return to homeostasis after pathogen clearance?

Resolution phase

Which chemokine recruits neutrophils from blood to infected tissue?


What is the effect of TNFα on vascular endothelium?

Activates the endothelium

Which molecule is involved in tight binding between leukocytes and endothelium during extravasation?

αLβ2 (LFA-1)

Which cytokine is responsible for inflammatory activation of leukocytes and increasing antibody production by B cells?


Which class of molecules are specifically recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and are shared by a category of pathogens?

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

What did Charles Janeway propose in 1989 regarding the stimulation of adaptive immunity?

Specialized receptors are required to induce innate responses to microbial molecules

Which of the following is a characteristic of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)?

Are evolutionarily conserved and specific to pathogen molecular features

Which of the following is a primary function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune response?

Detection of microbial components from a wide range of pathogens

What is a common outcome of PAMP/PRR recognition in terms of transcriptional outputs?

Production of antimicrobial molecules

In the context of the immune response, what is the main role of chemokines?

Induce inflammation and recruit immune cells to infection sites

Explore the effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFα) on vascular endothelium, including increased vessel diameter and permeability, leading to heat, redness, pain, and swelling. Learn about the role of TNFα in fever, inflammatory activation of leukocytes, antibody production, and recruitment of neutrophils from blood.

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