Early Human Development Dr. Hilary Sheppard Quiz
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Early Human Development Dr. Hilary Sheppard Quiz

Test your knowledge on the major developmental events in the early stages of human development according to Dr. Hilary Sheppard's teachings. Topics include fertilisation, cleavage of zygote, formation of morula and blastocyst, implantation, trophoblast development, embryonic disk, gastrulation, and structures derived from the three germ layers.

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Questions and Answers

What type of cells have limited divisions and are responsible for growth, renewal, and repair in the body?

Differentiated cells

Which type of stem cells in the skin allow for constant renewal?

Unipotent stem cells

What is the defining characteristic of a stem cell?

Their daughters all retain stem cell properties

In human embryonic development, what structure is responsible for the formation of the primitive streak?

<p>Mesoderm</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of stem cell can give rise to multiple, but not all, cell types in the body?

<p>Multipotent stem cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of unipotent stem cells in the skin?

<p>Allowing for constant renewal</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cells replace themselves and can produce differentiated daughter cells?

<p>Stem cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the major achievement of embryogenesis?

<p>Gastrulation generating three germ layers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structures are derived from the three primary germ layers?

<p>Rudiments of major organs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens during week 1 of foetal development?

<p>Formation of the morula and blastocyst</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which event marks the implantation phase in embryonic development?

<p>Trophoblast development</p> Signup and view all the answers

What defines the major axes during embryogenesis?

<p>Definition of anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral axes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are stem cells important in human development?

<p>To give rise to specialized cells for organ formation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the quote by Prof. that emphasizes the importance of gastrulation?

<p>It is not birth, marriage, or death...</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the aim of the ex vivo gene therapy strategy mentioned in the text?

<p>To achieve ~5% epidermal stem cell retention</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the first process mentioned in the text that follows fertilization?

<p>Cleavage</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do the three germ layers created during gastrulation give rise to?

<p>Ectoderm – skin, mesoderm – connective tissues, endoderm - gut</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of using stem cells in the context mentioned in the text?

<p>To replace differentiated cells for growth, repair, and renewal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main clinical utility of stem cells mentioned in the text?

<p>Long lasting skin grafts (gene edited)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process follows blastula formation or implantation according to the text?

<p>Gastrulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the edited skin express according to the information provided?

<p><strong>Col7</strong> and <strong>stem cell markers</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

Alex du Rand belongs to which laboratory as per the information provided?

<p><strong>Sheppard laboratory</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of gastrulation in embryonic development?

<p>Generation of three germ layers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure is responsible for forming the fetal placenta?

<p>Chorionic villi</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the hypoblast and epiblast in embryonic development?

<p>Generation of the three germ layers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which event defines the anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral axes during embryogenesis?

<p>Gastrulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What follows cleavage of the zygote in early development?

<p>Formation of the blastocyst</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do we need stem cells in human development?

<p>For growth and renewal</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which phase in embryonic development involves the completion of Meiosis II?

<p>Fertilisation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of unipotent stem cells in the skin?

<p>Allow for constant renewal</p> Signup and view all the answers

What defines a stem cell's ability to self-renew and generate differentiated daughter cells?

<p>Stem-cell properties</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which germ layer gives rise to structures like the amnion, yolk sac, and primitive streak?

<p>Mesoderm</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of stem cells in human development?

<p>Ensure constant renewal</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which event marks the initial phase of human embryonic development following fertilization?

<p>Implantation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main characteristic of differentiated cells compared to stem cells?

<p>Limited division potential</p> Signup and view all the answers

In skin, which type of stem cells allow for constant renewal?

<p>Unipotent stem cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What process follows organogenesis in embryonic development?

<p>Differentiation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which structure is responsible for the formation of the primitive streak in human embryonic development?

<p>Gastrulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characteristic defines ectoderm among the three germ layers?

<p>Skin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of stem cells contribute to constant renewal in the skin?

<p><strong>Unipotent</strong> stem cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of edited skin expressing Col7 and stem cell markers?

<p><strong>Promote</strong> long-lasting skin grafts</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of ex vivo gene therapy, what is the main purpose of retaining ~5% epidermal stem cells?

<p><strong>Aid</strong> long-lasting skin grafts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What term describes the process of creating three germ layers during embryogenesis?

<p><strong>Gastrulation</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

Which event directly precedes blastula formation or implantation in the embryonic development process?

<p><strong>Cleavage</strong></p> Signup and view all the answers

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