Developmental Psychology: Beginning of Thought

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What is the weight of a newborn's brain?

Less than 1lb

Which statement about neurons is true?

You are born with all the neurons you will ever have.

What is the process that involves axons growing in length and dendrites multiplying as a child matures?


What is the term used for the process of putting infants down to let them look around and gain experiences?


Can infants be trained to take steps early according to the text?

No, infants cannot be trained beyond a certain point.

What is deferred imitation in infants?

Imitating events after a certain amount of time has passed

Which theory suggests that language acquisition is mainly genetic?

Nativist approach

What does the Learning theory approach to language acquisition focus on?

Operant conditioning by rewarding or punishing sounds

What is one of the characteristics of language development mentioned in the text?

Infants display all basic emotions from birth

What is the Interactionist perspective on language acquisition?

It highlights the interaction between genetics and environment

What does the concept of 'Language acquisition device' refer to according to the text?

Specific areas in the brain that aid in language processing

At what age range do children typically start using telegraphic speech?

18-24 months

What is idioglossia?

Language invented and spoken by very few

What is cryptophasia?

Twin language and interpretation

What is a key aspect of memory in infants?

Proving the ability to retrieve information

When do children typically start picking up on pieces of language and practicing with them?

18-24 months

What is a characteristic of telegraphic speech?

Use of nouns and verbs mainly

During the autonomy vs. shame & doubt stage, children typically start to exhibit behaviors like:

Wanting to do things on their own

What can caregivers do to help children in the autonomy vs. shame & doubt stage practice their sense of control?

Allow them to try new things independently, like putting on their clothes

What might be the consequence of not allowing a child to show their sense of control and independence during this stage?

Children will feel incapable of doing things on their own

What is a common challenge that caregivers might face when children start wanting to do things on their own?

Finding it annoying when children want to be independent

What age range typically encompasses the autonomy vs. shame & doubt stage?

1 - 3 years

What is a common disadvantage of breastfeeding mentioned in the text?

Hazardous chemicals may be transmitted

At what age is it recommended for newborn infants to start consuming whole cow's milk?

12-14 months

What is the approximate size of a newborn's stomach on day three as mentioned in the text?

Size of walnut

Failure to Thrive in infants can lead to which of the following consequences as mentioned in the text?

Delayed developmental milestones

What sense do newborns primarily use to learn about their environment according to the text?


Which stage of cognitive development did Jean Piaget focus on infants from birth to 2 years?

Sensorimotor Stage

What does the term 'Assimilate' refer to in Piaget's theory of cognitive development?

"Putting things in folders you already have instead of creating a new one"

"Perceptual constancy" typically develops by which milestone according to the text?

"Onset of crawling (around 6 months)"

"Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)" is more prevalent in which age range as indicated in the text?

"2-4 months"

What is a common risk factor associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) according to the text?

Lower socioeconomic status (SES)

Study Notes

Physical Development: Infancy (Birth to 3 years)

  • Brain development:
    • Weighs less than 1 lb at birth, triples in weight by first birthday
    • Born with all neurons, but with more than needed, and they multiply and mature with age
    • Maturation: changes occur due to age and genetic makeup, with myelination and differentiation
  • Neurons:
    • Axons grow in length, dendrites and axon terminals multiply, forming complex networks
    • Maturation and myelination occur, influenced by experience and motivation
  • Breast milk:
    • Helps alleviate skin issues, acne, and diarrhea
    • Contains needed nutrients, mother's antibodies, and is less likely to cause allergies
    • Disadvantages: may transmit hazardous chemicals, demands physical effort from mother
  • Nutrition:
    • Newborns: breast milk or formula
    • 4-6 months: introduction to solid foods, practice purees
    • 12 months: whole cow's milk, breastfeeding until 2 years, nursing less frequently
  • Failure to Thrive:
    • Growth impairment during infancy and early childhood
    • Causes: inadequate nutrition, developmental delays, and eating patterns

Sensation and Perception Development

  • At birth:
    • Touch: need to be held, learn through touch, but lack control over hands and fingers
    • Taste: can differentiate between sour and bitter, prefer sweet tastes
    • Smell: sense familiar scents, like mother's, which are calming
    • Hearing: develops in utero, not as acute as in healthy adults, but improves rapidly
    • Vision: nearsighted, sees 7-10 inches away, develops rapidly after birth
  • Depth Perception:
    • Develops by 6 months, around onset of crawling
    • Research using the Visual Cliff

Sleep and Cognitive Development

  • Newborns:
    • Sleep 16 hours a day, with day and night mixed up
    • Spend a lot of time in REM sleep, with neural activation and brain consolidation
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS):
    • Risk factors: age 2-4 months, stomach sleeping, prematurity, low birth weight, SES, and maternal smoking
    • Prevention: lay infants on their back, without pillows or blankets

Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget

  • Schemes: concepts, way to organize knowledge
  • Assimilation: fitting new ideas into existing schemes
  • Accommodation: modifying schemes to accept new ideas
  • Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years):
    • Develop through sensory and motor activity
    • Substages: 6, including infant responses to their own body, and mental exploration

Language Development

  • Characteristics:
    • Crying: communicates needs
    • Gestures: pointing, indicating who or what they want
    • Facial expressions: displays all basic emotions
    • Language: all communication, including reading faces and body language
  • Theories of language acquisition:
    • Learning theory (Skinner, 1957): operant conditioning, rewards and punishment
    • Nativist approach (Chomsky, 1957): genetic, innate language acquisition device
    • Interactionist perspective (Broon & Tinker, 2001; Tomasella, 1995): combination of genetic and environmental factors

Memory and Social-Emotional Development

  • Memory: infants demonstrate memory through behaviors, imitation, and recalling events
  • Foundation of trust: caregivers, then expanding to others
  • Erikson's Psychosocial Theory:
    • 1-3 years: autonomy vs. shame and doubt, developing independence and sense of control

Explore the concept of the Beginning of Thought stage in developmental psychology, typically occurring around 18-24 months of age. Understand how infants begin to think before doing, exhibit deferred imitation, and delve into the theory critiques surrounding this stage.

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