Artificial Intelligence History and Applications

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What is AI?

The simulation of human intelligence processes by machines

What are three cognitive skills associated with AI programming?

Learning, reasoning and self-correction

What is the purpose of AI in enterprises?

To give insights into operations

What is the term used to describe the period of time between 1974 and 1980?

AI Winter

Who is credited with coining the term "artificial intelligence"?

John McCarthy

Study Notes

  • Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines.
  • Specific applications of AI include expert systems, natural language processing, speech recognition and machine vision.
  • AI requires a foundation of specialized hardware and software for writing and training machine learning algorithms.
  • No one programming language is synonymous with AI, but a few, including Python, R and Java, are popular.
  • In general, AI systems work by ingesting large amounts of labeled training data, analyzing the data for correlations and patterns, and using these patterns to make predictions about future states.
  • AI programming focuses on three cognitive skills: learning, reasoning and self-correction.
  • Learning processes. This aspect of AI programming focuses on acquiring data and creating rules for how to turn the data into actionable information.
  • Reasoning processes. This aspect of AI programming focuses on choosing the right algorithm to reach a desired outcome.
  • Self-correction processes. This aspect of AI programming is designed to continually fine-tune algorithms and ensure they provide the most accurate results possible.
  • AI has made its way into a wide variety of markets.
  • Artificial intelligence is important because it can give enterprises insights into their operations that they may not have been aware of previously and because, in some cases, AI can perform tasks better than humans.
  • Artificial intelligence is a field of computer science that focuses on the design of intelligent machines.
  • AI can be used to automate tasks in many different industries, such as healthcare, finance, law, and transportation.
  • Security is a major concern for organizations, and AI and machine learning are used to detect and prevent threats.
  • Some AI applications are used in transportation to manage traffic and make ocean shipping safer.
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field of computer science that deals with the creation of intelligent agents, or machines that can reason and act on their own.
  • AI has been around for centuries and has been used in a variety of ways, including in the creation of machines that can reason and act on their own.
  • There are many different types of AI, including machine learning and artificial general intelligence.
  • There are many potential risks associated with the use of AI, but these risks are currently being monitored and managed.
  • There are currently few regulations governing the use of AI, and where laws do exist, they typically pertain to AI indirectly.
  • The rapid evolution of AI technologies makes it difficult to craft meaningful regulation of AI.
  • The modern field of artificial intelligence is widely cited as starting this year during a summer conference at Dartmouth College.
  • Sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the conference was attended by 10 luminaries in the field, including AI pioneers Marvin Minsky, Oliver Selfridge and John McCarthy, who is credited with coining the term artificial intelligence.
  • Also in attendance were Allen Newell, a computer scientist, and Herbert A. Simon, an economist, political scientist and cognitive psychologist, who presented their groundbreaking Logic Theorist, a computer program capable of proving certain mathematical theorems and referred to as the first AI program.
  • In the 1980s, research on deep learning techniques and industry's adoption of Edward Feigenbaum's expert systems sparked a new wave of AI enthusiasm, only to be followed by another collapse of government funding and industry support.
  • The second AI winter lasted until the mid-1990s.
  • But the achievement of artificial general intelligence proved elusive, not imminent, hampered by limitations in computer processing and memory and by the complexity of the problem.
  • Government and corporations backed away from their support of AI research, leading to a fallow period lasting from 1974 to 1980 and known as the first "AI Winter."
  • In the 1990s, increases in computational power and an explosion of data sparked an AI renaissance in the late 1990s that has continued to present times.

Test your knowledge of the history and applications of artificial intelligence, including its evolution, specific applications, programming languages, and its significance in various industries.

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