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Cytokines and T-Cell Differentiation

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15 Questions

What is the primary function of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)?

To trap bacteria and fungi

Which cells are responsible for recognizing and taking up microbes through phagocytosis?


What is the primary role of chemokines produced by activated macrophages?

To guide the movement of leukocytes into infected tissue

What is the result of cytokines produced by tissue macrophages at the site of infection?

The dilation of local small blood vessels

What is the purpose of the four sequential steps in lymphocyte extravasation?

To allow leukocytes to cross the blood vessel and enter the infected tissue

What is the result of TNF-α being released into the blood by macrophages in the liver and spleen during a systemic infection?

multiple organ failure and frequent death

What is the role of TLR signaling in response to viral nucleic acids?

expression of antiviral interferons

What is the effect of TNF-α release on small blood vessels in the body during a systemic infection?

shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation

What is the result of the activation of NFκB by TLR signaling?

induction of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines

What is the characteristic sign of inflammation at the site of infection?

heat, pain, redness, and swelling

What is the primary function of cytokines in the immune system?

To coordinate immune responses

What factor influences the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into different T-helper-cell subsets?

The presence of cytokines in the local environment

How does the commensal gut microbiota affect immune function?

By having local and distant effects on immune function

What is the mechanism by which cytokine receptors transmit a signal into the cell?

Ligand binding to transmembrane proteins

What is the role of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in T-cell differentiation?

It is involved in the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells

Quiz about the role of cytokines in differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into T-helper-cell subsets, including JAK/STAT signaling pathway and immune response strategies.

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