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Cryptorchidism in Veterinary Medicine

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29 Questions

What is the primary purpose of the gubernaculum during testicular descent?

To guide the testicle through the inguinal canal

Which structure develops from the cranial part of the gubernaculum?

Proper ligament of the testis

What happens to the gubernaculum after the testicle passes into the inguinal canal?

It regresses

In which direction does the epididymis coil to form the ductus deferens?

Caudally

What is the order of testicular descent in the retroperitoneal space?

Epididymis, gubernaculum, testis

What is the final location of the testicle after testicular descent?

Scrotum

What is a common mistake that can occur when dealing with an incompletely descended testicle?

Mistaking the epididymis for the testicle

What is the approximate percentage of cryptorchid testicles that are possibly heritable?

50-60%

What is the purpose of hCG stimulation testing in diagnosing cryptorchidism?

To measure the level of testosterone in the blood

What is the benefit of finding the gubernaculum when searching for a cryptorchid testicle?

It is usually attached to the epididymis and testicle

What is the recommended procedure to avoid misdiagnosis when dealing with a high flanker or inguinal testicle?

Palpate the scrotum and inguinal rings externally

What is the importance of determining if the horse has been castrated before?

To ensure the horse is not mistakenly diagnosed as cryptorchid

What percentage of geldings may display continued aggression towards people?

5%

What is the purpose of identifying the gubernaculum during the inguinal approach?

To feel for the internal extension of the gubernaculum testes

What is the consequence of not closing the inguinal ring after opening it?

Evisceration

Why is it essential to submit the testicle for histopathology if there is any doubt?

To rule out the presence of a tumor

What is the significance of the lateral approach in castration?

It minimizes the risk of injury to the penis

What is the purpose of applying light traction during the inguinal approach?

To bring up the testicle

In which position is the incision made for the flank laparoscopic paramedian approach?

Between the umbilicus and scrotum, midway from the midline and inguinal region

What is the purpose of sweeping for the testicle during the flank laparoscopic paramedian approach?

To ensure the testicle is not ectopic

Why is it important to double ligate the spermatic cord during the flank laparoscopic paramedian approach?

To ensure the testicle is properly removed

What is the difference in the surgical approach for larger ruminants compared to smaller ones?

The flank laparotomy/laparoscopy is used instead of the flank laparoscopic paramedian approach

What is the significance of the short spermatic cord in porcine cryptorchids?

It allows for easier ligation of the ductus deferens

What is the first step of the Jan Hawkins Parainguinal Approach?

Make the approach to the external inguinal ring

In the Parainguinal Approach, what usually meets the fingers when 'sweeping the ring'?

Gubernaculum

Which approach allows for easier closure and avoidance of vessels/nerve in the inguinal ring?

Parainguinal Approach

Why is standing preferable for the Parainguinal Approach over recumbent when it comes to cost?

Standing reduces the number of personnel needed

Which other approach requires incision lateral to the ventral midline and through the rectus abdominis sheaths and muscle?

Suprapubic paramedian approach

Why is it emphasized to palpate before removing a down testicle in animals?

To confirm the testicle's position

Test your knowledge on cryptorchidism, a condition of undescended testicles in animals, with a focus on anatomy, testicular descent, and surgical approaches in equine and ruminants veterinary practices.

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