COPD Quiz

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33 Questions

Which of the following is NOT a primary function of the respiratory system?

Regulation of body temperature

Where does gas exchange between alveoli, blood, and tissues occur?

Alveoli

Which arteries supply the conducting airways from trachea to terminal bronchioles?

Bronchial arteries

Which of the following is part of the upper airways?

Larynx

What is the function of the mucociliary apparatus in the respiratory system?

Protection from pathogens

What is the primary method of transmission for tuberculosis (TB)?

Exposure to airborne droplets

Which of the following is not listed as a risk factor for the spread of TB?

Regular access to screening and care

In which part of the body do inspired bacilli lodge in individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI)?

Upper lobes of the lungs

What is the body's response to isolating bacilli in individuals with TB infection?

Formation of granulomatous lesion (tubercle)

How long may latent TB infection (LTBI) last in the host?

The lifetime of the host

What is a characteristic of early inflammation in asthma?

Mast cell release of histamine and leukotrienes leading to bronchoconstriction

What is a consequence of airway obstruction in asthma?

Difficulty in exhaling and potential respiratory acidosis

What is a characteristic of the late phase of inflammation in asthma?

Recruitment of various immune cells leading to a second bout of obstructed airflow

What is a clinical manifestation of asthma?

Symptoms worsening with exercise, cold air, viral infection, allergens, irritants, and stress

What is a characteristic of COPD?

Persistent airflow limitation and chronic inflammation in the airways due to noxious particles or gases

Which of the following is true about ventilation-perfusion matching?

It ensures that blood is preferentially sent to well-ventilated portions of the lung.

What is the key role of pulmonary arterioles in ventilation-perfusion mismatch?

Correcting ventilation-perfusion mismatch through hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

What are the signs and symptoms of pulmonary disease or injury?

Dyspnea, cough, abnormal sputum, abnormal breathing patterns, hyperventilation, hypoventilation, and cyanosis.

What characterizes obstructive lung diseases?

Difficulties in expiration and higher air remaining in the lungs, often caused by damaged lungs or narrowed airways.

What is asthma characterized by?

Inflammatory disorder with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling.

What is the primary risk factor for lung cancer?

Smoking

Which type of lung cancer is most common in non-smokers?

Adenocarcinoma

What characterizes Chronic Bronchitis in COPD?

Mucus hypersecretion

What is a feature of Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome?

Features of both asthma and COPD

Where is the highest incidence of active TB found?

Africa

What is the main risk factor for COPD in high-income countries?

Tobacco smoking

Which condition is characterized by chronic inflammatory condition and destruction of alveolar walls without fibrosis?

Emphysema

What is the prevalence trend of COPD with increasing age in Canada?

Increases steadily

What percentage of COPD cases are caused by an inherited mutation in the α1-antitrypsin gene?

1-3%

What is the GOLD definition of chronic obstruction in COPD based on FEV1/FVC ratio?

$FEV1/FVC$ ratio of 0.7

Which of the following is NOT a primary function of the respiratory system?

Assisting in digestion

What characterizes obstructive lung diseases?

Decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)

Where is the highest incidence of active TB found?

Sub-Saharan Africa

Study Notes

COPD: Key Facts and Pathophysiology

  • COPD encompasses chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  • Main risk factors include tobacco smoking, occupational dust, chemicals, and indoor/outdoor air pollution
  • Globally, responsible for approximately 3 million deaths annually, with tobacco smoke accounting for 70% of cases in high-income countries
  • In Canada, prevalence increases steadily with age, higher in males over 60, and highest in NU, YT, NS, and NT
  • 1-3% of COPD cases are caused by an inherited mutation in the α1-antitrypsin gene
  • Emphysema is characterized by chronic inflammatory condition and destruction of alveolar walls without fibrosis
  • Chronic bronchitis involves hypersecretion of mucus, chronic cough, and inflammation leading to airway remodeling
  • Both conditions result in expiratory flow limitation and air trapping, increasing the work of breathing and causing dyspnea
  • Air trapping and alveolar destruction can lead to ventilation/perfusion mismatches, hypoxia, and hypercapnia
  • Malnutrition affects 1/3 of COPD patients
  • Acute exacerbations of COPD can be caused by infections or unknown factors, leading to hospitalizations
  • Diagnosis involves patient history, blood gas analysis, and functional lung testing with a GOLD definition of chronic obstruction as FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.

Test your knowledge of COPD with this quiz on key facts and pathophysiology. Explore risk factors, prevalence, genetic causes, and the clinical manifestations of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

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