Common Health Problems in Toddlers Quiz

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29 Questions

What is the 3rd most common cause of unintentional injury in children aged 5 to 14 years old?

Burns

Which type of burns are caused by strong acids, alkalis, detergents, or solvents?

Chemical burns

What is the second greatest cause of unintentional injury in children aged 1-4 years old?

Burns

What is the main characteristic of fine motor development in toddlers?

Feeding themselves and drawing

Which type of burns are caused by external heat sources like hot metals, scalding liquids, steam, and flames?

Thermal burns

What is a common injury type associated with drowning and aspiration in toddlers?

Burns

Which treatment is appropriate for lead levels between 10-20 µg/100ml?

Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)

What should not be given to patients with peanuts allergy or G6PD deficiency?

Dimercaprol (BAL)

Which theory of Child Maltreatment focuses on the parent's potential to maltreat a child?

Special Parent

What type of injury characterizes Child Maltreatment as involving physical, emotional, or psychological harm?

Intentional injury by one person to another

Who are considered mandatory reporters for reporting suspected Child maltreatment?

Professionals mandated by law

What is the first step in managing poisoning at home?

Call the National Poison Control Center

What are the signs that a child has ingested acetaminophen?

Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting

What should be avoided when a child has ingested a caustic substance?

Inducing vomiting

What are the side effects of administering activated charcoal?

Black stools

What is the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning?

Acetylcysteine

What are the usual agents ingested in poisoning incidents?

Soap, cosmetics, detergents, cleaners, plants, OTC drugs, vitamins, aspirin, acetaminophen, and prescription drugs

Which of the following is a sign of psychological maltreatment in child maltreatment?

Constant belittling, threatening, rejecting, isolating or exploiting a child

Which of the following is not an indicator of physical abuse in child maltreatment?

Gross evidence of trauma in the genitalia

What is the term for a parent who repeatedly brings a child to a health care facility and reports symptoms when the child is well?

Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

Which of the following is an indicator of sexual maltreatment in child maltreatment?

Pregnancy in a young child

Which of the following is a sign of physical neglect in child maltreatment?

Failure to bring child to seek early medical help

Which of the following is not a recommended step in addressing child maltreatment?

Ignore the situation unless it becomes more severe

Which degree of burn involves the epidermis and full extent of dermis, and may require skin grafting?

Third degree burn

What is a common cause of fourth degree burns?

Flames

Which burn assessment tool is used to calculate the TBSA (Total Body Surface Area) for children?

Lund and Browder Chart

What is the most common complication of a second-degree burn?

Infection

Which of the following is not a component of the Burns Assessment approach?

Dressing

What is the characteristic appearance of a first-degree burn?

Red, dry, and no blisters

Study Notes

Burns Assessment

  • Airway, Breathing: beware of inhalation and rapid airway compromise
  • Circulation: fluid replacement
  • Disability: compartment syndrome
  • Exposure: percentage area of burn

Rule of 9s (Adults)

  • A method to calculate the Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) affected by burns

Classification and Description of Burns

First Degree/Superficial Thickness

  • Affects only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin
  • Appears red, dry, and with no blisters
  • Feels mildly painful
  • Heals 1-10 days by simple regeneration
  • Common cause: Sunburn

Second Degree/Partial Thickness

  • Involves the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin
  • Appears red, blistered, and may be swollen
  • Very painful
  • Heals over 2-6 weeks by tissue regeneration
  • Common cause: Scalding

Third Degree/Full Thickness

  • Involves the epidermis and full extent of dermis and may go into the subcutaneous tissue
  • Appears white or charred and lacks sensation because the nerve endings are destroyed
  • Skin grafting is usually necessary, healing takes months
  • Scar tissue will cover the final healed site
  • Common cause: Flames

Fourth Degree

  • Full thickness burn extending into muscle and bone
  • Skin grafting is necessary
  • Muscle and bone may be permanently damaged

Lead Poisoning Treatment

  • Lead levels >10-20 µg/100ml: prescribed dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) or succimer
  • Lead levels >45µg/100ml: treated with Dimercaprol (BAL) or edetate calcium disodium (CaEDTA)
  • ❖Don't give BAL to patients with peanuts allergy or G6PD deficiency

Child Maltreatment

  • Willful injury by one person to another
  • May be physical, emotional, or psychological, neglect, and sexual maltreatment

Theories of Child Maltreatment

1. Special Parent

  • A parent has the potential to maltreat a child
  • History of mental illness (10%)
  • Maltreated as children
  • Unfamiliar with Normal G&D
  • Socially isolated
  • Substance abuse

2. Special Child

  • Children who are maltreated
  • Parent views child as different
  • Birth anomaly

3. Special Circumstance

  • Stress

Child Maltreatment Reporting

  • Mandatory reporters: professionals who are mandated by law to report child maltreatment
  • Permissive reporters: encouraged to report suspected child abuse but are not required by law

Physical Abuse Indicators

  • Bruises
  • Burns
  • Head injuries
  • Eye injuries
  • Mouth injuries
  • Human bites
  • Chunks of hair pulled off the scalp
  • Repetitive accidents
  • Multiple wound or fracture at different stages of healing

Shaken Baby Syndrome

  • Repetitive violent shaking of a small infant by the arms or shoulders
  • Causing a whiplash injury to the neck, edema of brainstem or possibly subdural or retinal hemorrhage

Physical Neglect

  • Child is unwashed
  • Thin and malnourished
  • Dressed inappropriately
  • Failure to bring child to seek early medical help
  • Not requiring a child to attend school without setting up a home school

Psychological Maltreatment

  • Constant belittling, threatening, rejecting, isolating, or exploiting a child

Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

  • Refers to a parent who repeatedly brings a child to a health care facility and reports symptoms and illness when the child is well

Sexual Maltreatment Indicators

  • Difficulty walking or sitting
  • Gross evidence of trauma in the genitalia, oral, or anal regions
  • STI
  • Pregnancy
  • Weight loss

Implementation

  • Protect the child from further injury or neglect
  • Make sure that the child is free from further harm
  • Remove the child from the abusive environment

Health Problems Common in Toddlers

  • Burns
  • Poisoning
  • Child Abuse
  • Cerebral Palsy

Toddler Development

1. Gross Motor

  • Walking
  • Running
  • Climbing

2. Fine Motor

  • Feeding themselves
  • Drawing

3. Sensory/Cognitive

  • Seeing
  • Hearing
  • Tasting
  • Touching
  • Smelling

4. Language/Communication (Speech)

  • Saying single words
  • Then sentences

5. Social/Emotional

  • Playing with others
  • Taking turns
  • Doing fantasy play

Test your knowledge on common health problems in toddlers including burns, poisoning, child abuse, cerebral palsy, injuries like drowning and aspiration. Explore key aspects of toddler development such as gross motor skills, fine motor skills, sensory/cognitive abilities, language/communication, and social/emotional interactions.

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