Clinical Chemistry Quiz
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Clinical Chemistry Quiz

This quiz tests your knowledge of clinical chemistry concepts, including chromatography, instrument calibration, and measuring blood glucose levels.

Created by
@PeeN00t

Questions and Answers

What is the primary enzyme involved in the conversion of starch to glucose?

Amylase

Which of the following is the gold standard for measuring blood glucose levels?

Hexokinase method

What is the purpose of the Westergren method in clinical chemistry?

To measure erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

Which of the following enzymes is primarily involved in lipid metabolism?

<p>Lipase</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which anticoagulant is commonly used for blood gas analysis?

<p>Heparin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary method used to measure serum total protein?

<p>Biuret method</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which enzyme's activity is commonly measured to assess liver function?

<p>ALT (Alanine aminotransferase)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the hormone responsible for increasing blood glucose levels?

<p>Glucagon</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cation in human serum osmolality?

<p>Sodium</p> Signup and view all the answers

A hemolyzed sample can interfere with the measurement of which analyte?

<p>Potassium</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase in the liver?

<p>Hydrolysis of phosphate esters</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following lipids is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease?

<p>LDL</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of the electrolyte osmolality in clinical chemistry?

<p>Evaluating electrolyte balance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following enzymes is commonly used as a biomarker for liver damage?

<p>Alanine transaminase (ALT)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary purpose of measuring serum albumin levels?

<p>Evaluating nutritional status</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which condition is a significantly elevated level of conjugated bilirubin observed?

<p>Biliary obstruction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of adding heparin/manganese in lipoprotein precipitation?

<p>To precipitate VLDL and LDL, leaving HDL</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT used in the UV range?

<p>Incandescent bulb</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the principle used in Technicon and Kodak instruments?

<p>Reflectance spectrophotometry</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the SI value for a BUN of 22 mg/dL?

<p>7.8 mmol/L</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following enzymes is used as a marker for pancreatic function?

<p>Lipase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary buffer system in the blood?

<p>Bicarbonate buffer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following lipoproteins is considered 'good' cholesterol?

<p>HDL</p> Signup and view all the answers

A high anion gap is indicative of:

<p>Metabolic acidosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a major cation in intracellular fluid?

<p>Potassium</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of ampholytes in isoelectric focusing?

<p>To establish the pH gradient</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonium ion and bicarbonate?

<p>Urease</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the normal range of fasting blood sugar values?

<p>70-99 mg/dL</p> Signup and view all the answers

How much sodium chloride must be dissolved to prepare 500 ml of a 5 molar solution?

<p>145.1 g</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the contaminant that causes urea to be falsely elevated in the Berthelot reaction?

<p>Ammonia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which method is primarily used to measure serum total protein?

<p>Biuret method</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which enzyme's activity is measured to assess the severity of pancreatitis?

<p>Lipase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of albumin in the blood?

<p>Maintain osmotic pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following conditions is associated with a low serum osmolality?

<p>Overhydration</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol from tissues to the liver?

<p>HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of lipase in lipid metabolism?

<p>Hydrolyze triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common cause of preanalytical variation in blood glucose measurement?

<p>Delayed processing</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which electrolyte is primarily responsible for maintaining osmotic pressure and fluid balance in the body?

<p>Sodium</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following conditions can cause hyperkalemia?

<p>Both b and c</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following conditions can cause respiratory alkalosis?

<p>Hyperventilation</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following electrolytes is primarily responsible for maintaining osmotic pressure and fluid balance in the body?

<p>Sodium</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following enzymes is NOT a marker for pancreatic function?

<p>ALT</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of the Schilling test?

<p>Diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common cause of preanalytical error in laboratory testing?

<p>Improper sample collection</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common cause of metabolic alkalosis?

<p>Prolonged vomiting</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a measure of the body's ability to carry oxygen?

<p>Hemoglobin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a marker for diabetic ketoacidosis?

<p>Serum ketones</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which electrolyte imbalance can occur due to excessive vomiting?

<p>Hypokalemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of lipase in lipid metabolism?

<p>To break down triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following conditions can cause hyponatremia?

<p>SIADH (Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary buffer system in the blood?

<p>Bicarbonate buffer</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following electrolytes is primarily responsible for maintaining osmotic pressure and fluid balance in the body?

<p>Sodium</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following laboratory errors can occur due to delayed processing of blood samples?

<p>Glycolysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of albumin in the blood?

<p>To maintain osmotic pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which inflammatory biomarker is commonly used to diagnose pancreatitis?

<p>Lipase</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following proteins is a specific marker for cardiac damage?

<p>Troponin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of a spuriously elevated serum calcium level?

<p>Hyperproteinemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following enzymes is primarily involved in glycogenolysis?

<p>Glycogen phosphorylase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of a high anion gap metabolic acidosis?

<p>Diabetic ketoacidosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following electrolyte imbalances is associated with muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias?

<p>Hypokalemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following enzymes is measured to assess myocardial infarction and has a peak level at 12-24 hours after onset?

<p>Troponin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of hemoglobin in the blood?

<p>Transport oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following anticoagulants prevents clotting by chelating calcium?

<p>EDTA</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following electrolyte imbalances is commonly associated with chronic renal failure?

<p>Hyperkalemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of electrophoresis in clinical chemistry?

<p>Separate and identify proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following enzymes is commonly used as a marker for liver damage in response to acetaminophen overdose?

<p>ALT (Alanine aminotransferase)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following can cause falsely elevated glucose levels in a laboratory test?

<p>Hemolyzed sample</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following electrolyte imbalances can occur due to excessive vomiting?

<p>Hypokalemia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common cause of preanalytical variation in blood glucose measurement?

<p>Inadequate fasting</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following inflammatory biomarkers is commonly used to monitor the progression of prostate cancer?

<p>PSA</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary enzyme involved in the degradation of glucose to gluconic acid?

<p>Glucose oxidase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most common cause of preanalytical error in laboratory testing?

<p>Sampling error</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the enzyme urease?

<p>Catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea to ammonium ion and bicarbonate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the normal range of fasting blood sugar values?

<p>70-99 mg/dL</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of hypokalemia?

<p>Excessive vomiting</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase in the liver?

<p>Catalyzing the dephosphorylation of proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of the electrolyte osmolality in clinical chemistry?

<p>Measuring the osmotic pressure of the blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of metabolic alkalosis?

<p>Excessive vomiting</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the enzyme lipase in lipid metabolism?

<p>Catalyzing the hydrolysis of lipids to fatty acids</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of the Schilling test?

<p>Measuring the concentration of vitamin B12 in the blood</p> Signup and view all the answers

In which disease state is severely increased conjugated bilirubin observed?

<p>Biliary obstruction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process in which lab aspects include patient information, specimen collection, equipment maintenance, and reporting?

<p>Quality assurance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following can be used in the UV range except?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

Precipitating agents used in removing VLDL and LDL so that HDL will remain, except:

<p>Citrate/fluoride</p> Signup and view all the answers

Reflectance spectrophotometry is a principle used in:

<p>Technicon</p> Signup and view all the answers

On average, the value is expected to be greater than 2.6 ng/ml in 1 out of:

<p>100</p> Signup and view all the answers

The most specific dye binding technique for albumin is:

<p>Bromocresol blue</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the SI value for a BUN of 22 mg/dL?

<p>7.9 mmol/L</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common cause of falsely elevated serum potassium levels?

<p>Hemolysis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does the abbreviation TIBC stand for?

<p>Total Iron Binding Capacity</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which enzyme is used as a marker for pancreatic function?

<p>Lipase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the reagent used in the Jaffe reaction?

<p>Picric acid</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common example of a preanalytical error?

<p>Improper sample collection</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is an example of a major cation in intracellular fluid?

<p>Potassium</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a high anion gap indicative of?

<p>Metabolic acidosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone is responsible for regulating calcium metabolism and converting inactive Vitamin D to Vitamin D3?

<p>Parathyroid hormone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following lipoproteins is considered 'good' cholesterol?

<p>HDL</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of urease in the body?

<p>Catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea to ammonium ion and bicarbonate</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of ampholytes in isoelectric focusing?

<p>To establish a pH gradient</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the standard solution used to measure the icterus index?

<p>Potassium dichromate 0.01%</p> Signup and view all the answers

A deficiency in which vitamin can lead to pernicious anemia?

<p>Vitamin B12</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is the primary extracellular cation?

<p>Sodium</p> Signup and view all the answers

How much sodium chloride is required to prepare 500 ml of a 5 molar solution?

<p>145.1 g</p> Signup and view all the answers

The hormone responsible for increasing blood glucose levels is:

<p>Glucagon</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the normal range of fasting blood sugar values?

<p>70-99 mg/dL</p> Signup and view all the answers

A common method used to determine serum cholesterol is:

<p>Enzymatic method</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the contaminant that causes urea to be falsely elevated in the Berthelot reaction?

<p>Ammonia</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of positioned monochromators in fluorescence spectrophotometry?

<p>To separate excitation and emission wavelengths</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of a blank in a spectrophotometric assay?

<p>To account for background absorbance</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which anticoagulant is most commonly used for coagulation studies?

<p>Sodium citrate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which enzyme's activity is commonly measured to assess liver function?

<p>ALT (Alanine aminotransferase)</p> Signup and view all the answers

A hemolyzed sample can interfere with the measurement of:

<p>Potassium</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is the primary function of the kidneys in acid-base balance?

<p>Reabsorb bicarbonate</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following conditions is associated with an increased level of uric acid?

<p>Gout</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of the Schilling test?

<p>Diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a measure of the body's ability to carry oxygen?

<p>Hemoglobin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common cause of metabolic alkalosis?

<p>Prolonged vomiting</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is the main cation in extracellular fluid?

<p>Sodium</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following conditions can cause hyponatremia?

<p>SIADH</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of serum amylase measurement?

<p>Diagnose pancreatitis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

  • The specimen of choice for arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is arterial blood.

Liver Function

  • The measurement of serum albumin is important in assessing liver function, nutritional status, and renal function.
  • The primary buffer system in the blood is the bicarbonate buffer.

Enzymes

  • The enzyme lipase is primarily used to diagnose pancreatitis.
  • The enzyme amylase is primarily used to diagnose pancreatitis.
  • The enzyme ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) is commonly measured to assess liver function.
  • The enzyme CK-MB (Creatine kinase-MB) is used as a marker for myocardial infarction and has a peak level at 12-24 hours after onset.

Lipoproteins

  • The primary role of HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) in the body is to transport cholesterol from tissues to the liver.
  • HDL is considered "good" cholesterol.

Electrolytes

  • Sodium is the primary extracellular cation.
  • The electrolyte imbalance commonly associated with chronic renal failure is hyperkalemia.

Blood Analysis

  • The primary function of hemoglobin is to transport oxygen.
  • The measurement of serum bilirubin is important in assessing liver function.
  • The reference method for measuring serum bilirubin is the Evelyn-Malloy method.

Coagulation Studies

  • The anticoagulant most commonly used for coagulation studies is sodium citrate.
  • The primary use of the PT (Prothrombin Time) is to assess the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

Kidney Function

  • The primary function of the kidneys in acid-base balance is to excrete hydrogen ions.
  • The electrolyte imbalance commonly associated with chronic kidney disease is hyperkalemia.

Pancreatic Function

  • The enzyme lipase is used as a marker for pancreatic function.
  • The measurement of serum ketones is useful in the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis.

Hormones

  • The hormone responsible for increasing blood glucose levels is glucagon.
  • The hormone responsible for decreasing blood glucose levels is insulin.

Tumor Markers

  • The tumor marker for prostate cancer is PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen).

Anemia

  • A deficiency in Vitamin B12 can lead to pernicious anemia.

Other

  • The primary use of electrophoresis in clinical chemistry is to separate and identify proteins.
  • The primary use of the Westergren method is to measure erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
  • A high anion gap is indicative of metabolic acidosis.
  • A hemolyzed sample can interfere with the measurement of glucose, potassium, and other analytes.### Laboratory Medicine

Clinical Chemistry

  • Biliary obstruction is characterized by severely increased conjugated bilirubin
  • Quality control and quality assurance are distinct processes in laboratory medicine
  • Quality control involves internal checks and calibrations, while quality assurance encompasses all aspects of laboratory operations

Hematology

  • Hemolysis and erythroblastosis fetalis are two distinct disease states
  • Hemolysis is characterized by increased unconjugated bilirubin, while erythroblastosis fetalis is a hemolytic disease of the newborn
  • Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a measure of long-term glucose control in diabetic patients

Clinical Biochemistry

  • Urea is hydrolyzed to ammonium ion and bicarbonate by the enzyme urease
  • Parathyroid hormone is essential for calcium metabolism and vitamin D activation
  • BUN (blood urea nitrogen) is a measure of renal function, with a normal range of 7.8-22 mmol/L

Lipids and Lipoproteins

  • HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is often referred to as "good" cholesterol
  • LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) are considered "bad" cholesterol

Endocrinology

  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a marker for thyroid function and disease
  • Insulin and glucagon are two important hormones in glucose metabolism
  • Cortisol is a hormone involved in stress response and glucose metabolism

Acid-Base Balance and Electrolytes

  • Metabolic acidosis is characterized by an increased anion gap
  • Respiratory acidosis is characterized by increased pCO2
  • Sodium is the primary extracellular cation, while potassium is the primary intracellular cation

Molecular Diagnostics

  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is a molecular diagnostic technique used to amplify DNA sequences
  • Real-time PCR is a variant of PCR that allows for simultaneous amplification and detection of DNA sequences

Tumor Markers

  • PSA (prostate-specific antigen) is a tumor marker for prostate cancer
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) is a tumor marker for various cancers, including colon and breast cancer

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