Clinical Biochemistry Lecture 1
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Clinical Biochemistry Lecture 1

This quiz covers the basics of lipid biochemistry, discussed in the first lecture of Clinical Biochemistry at Al-Ayen University's College of Medicine. It's taught by Dr. Mariam Mohammed Ali and covers the fundamentals of lipids.

Created by
@IllustriousPlumTree

Questions and Answers

What is a characteristic of lipids?

They are relatively insoluble in water

What is one of the functions of lipids in the body?

Storing form of energy

What is the term for lipids that are esters of fatty acids with glycerol?

Fats

Which of the following is a type of complex lipid?

<p>Phospholipid</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for lipids that are esters of fatty acids with higher molecular weight monohydric alcohols?

<p>Waxes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Lipids provide insulation against changes in what?

<p>External temperature</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the roles of lipids in the body?

<p>Providing a cushioning effect for internal organs</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a function of lipids?

<p>Regulating blood pressure</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the general formula for fatty acids?

<p>CH3-(CH2)n-COOH</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are naturally occurring fatty acids configured at the double bonds?

<p>Cis configuration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of lipids contains a fatty acid, sphingosine, and a carbohydrate?

<p>Glycolipids</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the typical length range for medium chain fatty acids?

<p>8 to 14 carbon atoms</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for fatty acids with a single double bond?

<p>Monounsaturated</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for fatty acids that do not have double bonds?

<p>Saturated</p> Signup and view all the answers

How can fatty acids bind with glycerol?

<p>To form triglycerides</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds?

<p>Polyunsaturated</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary source of energy for the body?

<p>Free plasma fatty acids</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens to unsaturated fatty acids when treated with halogens under mild conditions?

<p>They take up two halogen atoms at each double bond</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of salts are formed when fatty acids react with alkali?

<p>Soap</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the process by which fatty acids are oxidized in the body?

<p>Beta-oxidation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can unsaturated fatty acids undergo due to the presence of highly reactive double bonds?

<p>Auto-oxidation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the product formed when glycerol reacts with a fatty acid?

<p>Monoacylglycerol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the process of converting unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids?

<p>Hydrogenation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the formation of a compound when fatty acids react with alcohols?

<p>Esterification</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Definition and Biological Function of Lipids

  • Lipids are organic compounds insoluble in water but freely soluble in non-polar organic solvents.
  • They have various biological functions, including energy storage, structural components of bio membranes, metabolic regulators, and surfactants.

Classification of Lipids

  • Simple lipids: esters of fatty acids with various alcohols, including fats, oils, and waxes.
  • Complex lipids: containing extra groups in addition to an alcohol and esters of fatty acids, including phospholipids and glycolipids.
  • Precursor and derived lipids: fatty acids, glycerol, steroids, other alcohols, fatty aldehydes, ketone bodies, lipid-soluble vitamins, and hormones.

Fatty Acids

  • General formula: CH₃-(CH₂)n-COOH.
  • Classification:
    • By length of hydrocarbon chain: short chain (2-6 C), medium chain (8-14 C), long chain (16-24 C), and very long chain (more than 24 C).
    • By nature of hydrocarbon chain: saturated and unsaturated (monounsaturated or polyunsaturated).

Properties of Fatty Acids

  • Hydrogenation: unsaturated fatty acids can be converted to saturated fatty acids.
  • Halogenation: unsaturated fatty acids can take up halogen atoms at each double bond.
  • Salt formation: fatty acids form salts with alkali.
  • Ester formation: fatty acids can form esters with alcohols, especially with glycerol.
  • Oxidation: fatty acids undergo oxidation in the body to give energy, involving beta-oxidation and auto-oxidation.

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