Classical Conditioning and Connectionism in Learning Theories
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Classical Conditioning and Connectionism in Learning Theories

Explore the concepts of classical conditioning and connectionism in learning theories, with a focus on the works of Ivan Pavlov. This quiz is designed for students studying at the Philippine Normal University National Center for Teacher Education.

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Questions and Answers

What is the main focus of Behavioral Learning Theories?

Observing external behavior

Which of the following is NOT a component of Classical Conditioning according to the text?


What did Ivan Pavlov win the Nobel Prize for?

Digestive system physiology

In Classical Conditioning, what is an Unconditioned Stimulus?

<p>Stimulus that automatically produces a response</p> Signup and view all the answers

What happens during Extinction in Classical Conditioning?

<p>The learned response disappears gradually</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should be associated with learning tasks in Classical Conditioning?

<p>Pleasant events</p> Signup and view all the answers

According to Thorndike, which statement best describes the law of effect?

<p>Responses followed by pleasant consequences will be more likely to be repeated.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism described in connectionism for learning?

<p>Stimulus-response associations</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which law of learning focuses on the strengthening of connections through practice?

<p>Law of exercise</p> Signup and view all the answers

In the context of learning theory, what does the law of readiness emphasize?

<p>Responses can be chained together to satisfy a goal.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which psychologist conducted some of the first experiments on animal learning in the late 19th century?

<p>Edward L. Thorndike</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are associations or 'habits' described in connectionism strengthened or weakened?

<p>By the nature and frequency of stimulus-response pairings</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Learning Theories

  • Learning theories are set conjectures and hypotheses that explain the process of learning or how learning takes place.
  • Behavioral Learning Theories focus on actual behavior and make conclusions based on observations of external manifestations of learning.

Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning

  • Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who won the 1904 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.
  • Pavlov made major scientific contributions to understanding the physiology of the digestive system.
  • Classical Conditioning believes that individuals learn when a previously neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus evokes a conditioned response.

Key Components of Classical Conditioning

  • Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response.
  • Unconditioned response: a naturally occurring emotional or physiological response.
  • Neutral stimuli: stimuli that do not elicit a response.
  • Conditioned stimulus: a stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning.
  • Conditioned response: a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.

Features of Classical Conditioning

  • Generalization: responding in the same way to similar stimuli.
  • Discrimination: responding differently to similar, but not identical stimuli.
  • Extinction: the gradual disappearance of a learned response.

Guidelines for Using Classical Conditioning

  • Associate positive, pleasant events with learning tasks.
  • Help students to risk anxiety-producing situations voluntarily and successfully.
  • Help students recognize differences and similarities among situations so they can discriminate and generalize properly.

Edward Thorndike and Connectionism

  • Edward Thorndike was an American psychologist who conducted experiments on animal learning.
  • Thorndike formulated the law of effect, which states that behaviors that are followed by pleasant consequences will be more likely to be repeated in the future.
  • Connectionism Learning is the result of associations (or connections) forming between stimuli and responses.

Laws of Learning

  • Law of effect: responses to a situation which are followed by a rewarding state of affairs will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation.
  • Law of readiness: a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked.
  • Law of exercise: connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued.

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