Chomsky's Language Acquisition Model
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Chomsky's Language Acquisition Model

Explore Chomsky's theory on language acquisition, which suggests that humans are born with a natural ability to learn language. Learn how knowledge storage and algorithmic manipulation play a role in language development.

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Questions and Answers

What is the primary function of the knowledge storage in Chomsky's model?

To manipulate language information algorithmically

What is the name of the theory that suggests language learning is an inborn trait?

Nativist view

According to Chomsky's universal grammar, what is the commonality among all human languages?

Common grammatical rules

What is the primary argument of connectionist models in language learning?

<p>Language can be learned through exposure to patterns in language input</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the key difference between Chomsky's model and connectionist models?

<p>Chomsky's model emphasizes innate knowledge, while connectionist models emphasize environmental interaction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the universal grammar in Chomsky's model?

<p>To allow children to quickly learn their native language</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the primary focus of the 1988 PET study?

<p>To examine the neural basis of language processing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary implication of the comprehension hypothesis?

<p>That language acquisition is a byproduct of comprehensible input</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between phonological and surface dyslexia?

<p>One is related to reading phonetic script, while the other is related to reading pictographic script</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary goal of the natural language approach to second language learning?

<p>To provide comprehensible input through storytelling</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the average number of words known by a native English speaker?

<p>40,000</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary advantage of the comprehension hypothesis over the skill building hypothesis?

<p>It is more effective</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the affective filter in language acquisition?

<p>It inhibits language acquisition</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary implication of the 1988 PET study for language processing?

<p>That language processing is a parallel process</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary characteristic of the natural language approach to second language learning?

<p>The use of comprehensible input</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between the direct and indirect approaches to reading?

<p>One involves phonetic decoding, while the other involves recognizing words by sight</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary reason why high anxiety blocks language input?

<p>It prevents the input from penetrating the student's mind</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main goal of language learning, according to the social context of speech?

<p>To take into account other people's thoughts, feelings, and beliefs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis related to?

<p>Language and thought</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic of bilingual individuals when responding to personality tests in their two languages?

<p>They exhibit different personality traits in each language</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a challenge in speech perception, according to the text?

<p>Separating the speaker's voice from background noise</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why do computer voice recognition systems often struggle with speech perception?

<p>Because speech perception is an extremely complicated process</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate vocabulary size of an average adult?

<p>20,000 words</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many languages are spoken by more than 1 million people?

<p>250 languages</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the minimum number of speakers required for a language to survive?

<p>100,000 speakers</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many words can an average person learn per day between ages 2 and 18?

<p>7 words per day</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the estimated number of languages that exist in the world today?

<p>6500 languages</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary method by which infants parse streams of sound into words?

<p>By exploiting their sensitivity to the frequency of correlations in transitional probabilities</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of not being exposed to language in childhood?

<p>Children will only be able to learn vocabulary but not grammar</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate percentage of phoneme differences in non-native languages that infants can perceive at birth?

<p>95%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of the right hemisphere in language processing?

<p>To interpret a message's emotional tone and decode metaphors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the study of the relationship between the brain and language?

<p>Neurolinguistics</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the approach to reading that involves recognizing whole words by sight and directly understanding their meanings?

<p>Direct Access Route</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the probability that a second sound will follow a first sound?

<p>Transitional probability</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of the 'hardening of the categories' that occurs in language development?

<p>Children lose the ability to recognize speech sounds from other languages</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary benefit of early exposure to language in childhood?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term for the route of reading that involves decoding the phonetic components of words to arrive at their meanings?

<p>Indirect Access Route</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary advantage of the connectionist approach to language comprehension?

<p>It demonstrates the ability to learn complex linguistic skills without explicit linguistic rules</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of stage 1 of children's learning of the English past tense?

<p>They use a small number of very common verbs in the past tense</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary feature of the Bayesian language learning approach?

<p>It detects statistical patterns in language input</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary challenge addressed by Bayesian models of language learning?

<p>Segmenting continuous speech into individual words</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of transitional probabilities in Bayesian language learning?

<p>They suggest the likelihood of a sound being part of a word</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary critique of innatism provided by Bayesian models of language learning?

<p>Innatism is not necessary for language learning, as Bayesian models show</p> Signup and view all the answers

At what age do infants typically start to emerge with the ability to segment continuous speech into individual words?

<p>8 months</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of stage 2 of children's learning of the English past tense?

<p>They make frequent overregularization errors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary feature of the Plunkett-Marchman multilayer neural network model of tense learning?

<p>It reproduces the typical trajectory of language learning without explicit linguistic rules</p> Signup and view all the answers

What percentage of the time is a word boundary marked by an actual physical event, such as a pause, in English?

<p>Less than 40%</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the Lipnet, developed by the team at Oxford's AI lab?

<p>To translate lip movements to text with 95% accuracy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main limitation of ELIZA, an early computer program that could engage in conversational exchanges?

<p>It was not capable of complex linguistic understanding</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of SHRDLU, a computer model developed by Terry Winograd?

<p>To use language to report on its environment and plan actions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the minimum amount of audio data required to train the voice replication program developed by Lyrebird?

<p>1 minute</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate vocabulary and comprehension level of a chimpanzee?

<p>Equivalent to a 2-1/2-year-old child</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of syntactic analysis in SHRDLU?

<p>To identify the objects and actions in a sentence</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main advantage of SHRDLU over ELIZA?

<p>SHRDLU can use language to report on its environment and plan actions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main challenge in creating a video of Obama using the Lyrebird program?

<p>Translating audio into mouth shapes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of semantic analysis in SHRDLU?

<p>To assign meanings to individual words</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between SHRDLU and ELIZA in terms of their ability to process language?

<p>SHRDLU can use language to report on its environment and plan actions, while ELIZA cannot</p> Signup and view all the answers

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