Ch. 3 The Cellular Level of Organization: Plasma Membrane Structure

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What is the process by which extracellular materials are packaged in vesicles at the cell surface and imported into the cell?

Endocytosis

Which process brings solid materials from outside the cell into the cell?

Endocytosis

What is the term for the process of vesicle content being released into the extracellular environment?

Exocytosis

Which phase of the cell cycle involves the duplication of chromosomes?

S phase

What is the term for the process of distribution of two sets of chromosomes during cell division?

Mitosis

Which term refers to the ability of cancerous cells to spread to other parts of the body?

Metastasis

Which organelle is responsible for producing energy to carry out the functions of life?

Mitochondria

What is the primary function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in liver cells?

Inactivate or detoxify lipid-soluble drugs

What is the main role of cilia in the respiratory and reproductive systems?

Move fluids or secretions across the cell surface

What happens to the nerve cells in Tay-Sachs disease due to the lack of a specific enzyme?

They produce excessive ganglioside

What is the function of proteasomes in the cell?

Remove unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins

Which organelle generates hydrogen peroxide and has an enzyme called catalase to protect the cell from the damaging effects of free radicals?

Peroxisomes

What is the principal function of the Golgi apparatus?

Process, sort, and deliver proteins and lipids

Which organelle contains digestive enzymes for breaking down organic polymers?

Lysosomes

What is the composition of cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid?

Mainly water, plus proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and inorganic substances

What is the basic framework of the plasma membrane made up of?

Phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids

Which part of the cell structure makes up 55 percent of the weight of the plasma membrane?

Membrane proteins

What is the function of recognition proteins in the cell?

Help cells recognize and respond to specific molecules in their environment

What is the role of carrier proteins in the cell?

Binds solutes and transports them across the plasma membrane

What structure helps determine cell shape and function in intracellular transport of organelles?

Cytoskeleton

During cell division, which structure aids in the formation of the spindle apparatus needed for movement of chromosomes?

Centrioles

What is the function of microfilaments in a cell?

Aid in movement and mechanical support

What is the main function of ribosomes in a cell?

Responsible for protein synthesis

What is the primary function of lysosomes within a cell?

Destroy bacteria and cleanup inside the cell

Test your knowledge of the structure of the plasma membrane and its components with this quiz. Explore the definitions and functions of sex cells, somatic cells, and the plasma membrane.

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