Cell Structure and Organelles Quiz
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Cell Structure and Organelles Quiz

Test your knowledge of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, organelles, and the endomembrane system with this quiz. Explore the differences between animal and plant cells, learn about the functions of the nucleus, ER, Golgi apparatus, and more. Challenge yourself and see how well you understand the structure and functions of these cellular components.

Created by
@GainfulPorcupine

Questions and Answers

Which of the following is NOT a function of the cell membrane?

Cell division

Which of the following is a characteristic of prokaryotic cells?

Presence of a nucleus

Which organelles are found in plant cells but not in animal cells?

Cell wall and chloroplasts

What is the approximate size of DNA?

<p>2 nanometers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organelle is responsible for disposal within the cell and is filled with digestive enzymes?

<p>Lysosomes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of mitochondria in the cell?

<p>Produce energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the cell membrane?

<p>Maintain the cell and control the movement of particles</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the current theory of the cell membrane?

<p>Fluid mosaic model</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a biological function of cell membranes?

<p>Chemical reactions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the movement of molecules from high to low concentration called?

<p>Diffusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which transport mechanism requires energy in the form of ATP?

<p>Active transport</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of chloroplasts in plant cells?

<p>Convert light energy and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates through photosynthesis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which components make up the cytoplasm?

<p>Organelles and cytosol</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the cytoskeleton?

<p>To maintain cell shape and internal organization</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are microtubules made of?

<p>Tubulin molecules</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cells are classified as eukaryotic?

<p>Plants, fungi, animals, and algae</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where does photosynthesis take place?

<p>In the chlorophyll within each chloroplast molecule</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why is the release of oxygen during photosynthesis important?

<p>It is important for breathing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is required for the practical about macromolecules and biomolecules happening tomorrow?

<p>Lab coats and safety glasses</p> Signup and view all the answers

What needs to be done with the practical manual?

<p>It needs to be printed and brought to the practical</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the cell membrane in osmosis and diffusion?

<p>It facilitates the movement of molecules</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of active transport?

<p>The potassium ion pump</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which statement accurately describes cell theory?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

<p>Prokaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, while eukaryotic cells do not</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the resolution limit of a light microscope?

<p>1.5 times that of a microscope (200 nanometers)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Why are most cells not visible to the naked eye?

<p>Cells are too small to be seen by the naked eye</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cell has a DNA enclosed in a nuclear envelope and many specialized organelles?

<p>Eukaryotic cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between animal cells and plant cells?

<p>Plant cells have a cell wall</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of lysosomes?

<p>Lysosomes break down waste materials</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus?

<p>The Golgi apparatus packages proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a component of the cytoplasm?

<p>Nucleus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of microtubules in a cell?

<p>Anchoring the nucleus in place</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a function of the cytoskeleton?

<p>Generating energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of prokaryotic cells?

<p>Contain a nucleus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a function of the cell membrane?

<p>Energy production</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

<p>Presence of a nucleus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of mitochondria in the cell?

<p>Cellular respiration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of active transport?

<p>Sodium-potassium pump</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organelle is responsible for breaking down cellular waste into simple components for reuse by the cell?

<p>Lysosomes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of mitochondria in the cell?

<p>Produce energy for the cell</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the cell membrane?

<p>Maintain the cell and control the movement of particles</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the current theory of the cell membrane?

<p>Fluid mosaic model</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of microscope has a higher resolution, allowing for the visualization of smaller structures within cells?

<p>Electron microscope</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the resolution limit of a light microscope?

<p>200 nanometers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a principle of the cell theory?

<p>The life process of metabolism and heredity occur within those cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

<p>Prokaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, while eukaryotic cells do not</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the cell membrane in diffusion and osmosis?

<p>To allow movement of molecules from high to low concentration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of facilitated diffusion?

<p>To allow movement of molecules from high to low concentration</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of active transport?

<p>To move molecules against the concentration gradient using energy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of chloroplasts in plant cells?

<p>To convert light energy and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organelle is responsible for converting light energy and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates through photosynthesis?

<p>Chloroplasts</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main function of the cell membrane?

<p>To control the movement of substances in and out of the cell</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which process uses proteins to allow bigger molecules to pass through the cell membrane?

<p>Facilitated diffusion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of the cell membrane in osmosis and diffusion?

<p>To regulate the movement of water and solutes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

<p>To package and modify proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between hypertonic and hypotonic cells?

<p>Hypertonic cells have a higher solute concentration than the surrounding solution, while hypotonic cells have a lower solute concentration</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which organelle is responsible for breaking down waste materials and cellular debris within the cell?

<p>Lysosomes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the nuclear envelope?

<p>To control and store hereditary characteristics</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between plant cells and animal cells?

<p>Plant cells have a cell wall</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

<p>To process proteins from the ER</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Comparison of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells, Organelles, and the Endomembrane System

  • Eukaryotic cells have a DNA enclosed in a nuclear envelope and many specialized organelles, while prokaryotic cells have a single chromosome in the center of the cell with no nuclear envelope.
  • Animal cells and plant cells are structurally similar, but plant cells have additional components such as a cell wall, chloroplasts for photosynthesis, and specialized vacuoles for storing water.
  • Cell fractionation is a method used to separate organelles within a cell by using centrifugal forces to break the cell apart and separate the organelles.
  • Eukaryotic cells have many specialized organelles, including the plasma membrane, nucleus, ribosomes, and various other organelles. Animal cells also have a cytoplasm, while plant cells have additional organelles like chloroplasts and specialized vacuoles.
  • The nucleus controls and stores hereditary characteristics of the organism, aids in protein synthesis, cell division, growth, and differentiation, and contains the nucleolus, nucleoplasm, chromatin, and nuclear pores.
  • The endomembrane system is composed of a group of membranes and organelles that work together to modify, package, and transport lipids and proteins.
  • The endomembrane system includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, and cell membranes.
  • The ER is divided into two types: rough ER, which is covered in ribosomes and produces proteins, and smooth ER, which does not contain ribosomes and is responsible for lipid synthesis and detoxification.
  • Ribosomes are found throughout the cell and are responsible for building proteins.
  • The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced by the ER, packages them into vesicles, and sends them to the correct locations using small molecules as "postage stamps."
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles filled with digestive enzymes that break down waste materials and cellular debris.
  • Cell membranes separate the cell from its external environment and are composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins and carbohydrates.

Comparison of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells, Organelles, and Endomembrane System

  • Eukaryotic cells have DNA enclosed in a nuclear envelope and many specialized organelles, while prokaryotic cells have one chromosome in the center of the cell and no nuclear envelope.
  • Plant cells have additional components compared to animal cells, such as a cell wall, chloroplasts for photosynthesis, and specialized vacuoles for storing water.
  • Cell fractionation is a method used to separate organelles within a cell using centrifugal forces to break the cell apart and separate the organelles.
  • Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, including the plasma membrane, nucleus, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and various specialized organelles.
  • Animal cells have additional organelles compared to plant cells, such as lysosomes and peroxisomes.
  • The nucleus controls and stores hereditary characteristics, aids in protein synthesis, cell division, growth, and differentiation, and has various components like the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, nucleoplasm, chromatin, and nuclear pores.
  • The endomembrane system is composed of membranes and organelles that modify, package, and transport lipids and proteins within the cell, including the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, and cell membranes.
  • The ER has two parts: rough ER, covered in ribosomes and responsible for protein production, and smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes and is involved in lipid synthesis and detoxification.
  • Ribosomes are responsible for building proteins and are found throughout the cell.
  • The Golgi apparatus processes proteins from the ER, packages them into vesicles, and sends them to the correct locations using small molecules as "postage stamps."
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles containing digestive enzymes that break down waste materials and cellular debris within the cell.
  • Cell membranes separate the cell from its external environment and are composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins and carbohydrates.

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