Cell Signalling Complexity in Cell Biology
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Cell Signalling Complexity in Cell Biology

Explore the concept of effectors and signalling pathways in cell biology, focusing on how signals are sorted, integrated, diverged, and converged. Learn about the interconnectedness of different intracellular pathways depicted in Fig 11.2 from Chapter 11 of 'Principles of Cell Biology' by George Plopper.

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Questions and Answers

What are examples of primary messengers in cell signaling?

Hormones, neurotransmitters, cell surface proteins

Which type of receptors are involved in cell signaling?

Cell surface receptors and intracellular receptors

What type of molecules act as second messengers in signal transduction?

Non-protein molecules

Which effectors can be involved in fast signal transduction cascades?

<p>Cytoskeletal proteins for cellular movement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What determines the speed of the cellular response in signal transduction?

<p>The type of effectors involved</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are primary messengers of extracellular signals?

<p>Hormones, Local mediators, Neurotransmitters, Cell surface proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of receptors are involved in cell signaling pathways?

<p>Cell Surface and Intracellular receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of molecules are involved in the transduction process of cell signaling?

<p>Proteins interacting through Specific Signalling domains</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which molecules can serve as effectors in cellular responses?

<p>Second messengers, Proteins, DNA</p> Signup and view all the answers

What characterizes classic intracellular signaling pathways?

<p>Reception, Transduction, Response</p> Signup and view all the answers

What allows multiple responses to a single signal in signaling pathways?

<p>Divergence</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of molecules can transduce and amplify a signal through protein Kinases in cell signaling cascades?

<p>Second messengers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which component in cell signaling pathways is primarily protein in nature?

<p>Proteins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are some examples of modular interaction domains found in proteins involved in cell signaling?

<p>SH2, SH3, PTB, and PIP domains</p> Signup and view all the answers

How are cell signaling proteins often broadly categorized based on their catalytic activity?

<p>Based on their presence of a catalytic domain</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which proteins help relay a signal further downstream in the cell after signal-receptor binding?

<p>Only specific proteins involved in cell signaling cascades</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which molecules can interact with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to transduce a signal in cell signaling?

<p>Second messengers</p> Signup and view all the answers

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